“你不是拍照片，你是制作照片。” Ansel Adams 的话提醒我们，照片是由摄影师做出的一系列选择而成形的。再者，我们对照片的解释不仅仅受到摄影师意图的影响，而且还受到图片制作、剪辑和流通方式的影响。
1.2 引言 - 通过摄影看世界
All photographers make choices, whether it's how you frame something on Instagram, what kind of camera you use, what kind of print you make, how you share that picture. >> The power of photography is way more complicated than people admit to. You have to learn to understand how images are constructed. >> I got into photography because I wanted to know something that other people didn't know. What makes a single image important any more? How do you make that image that people are going to run to museums for? >> What is it about me? What are we bringing to this photograph? >> I think you have to contend with a lot and that is a very worthwhile experience. >> When you think of photographs as processes, not as products, you start really understanding what they really mean. >> How's the process different? >> I want it to be not about grabbing the moment, but about dancing with the moment, collaborating with the moment. >> Can you see what I see? >> No. No one else can see it. >> >> You can stop something and look at it in a way that you normally wouldn't see it, and I think that's part of the real fascination with still photography. It lets you step outside yourself to kind of look at the world in a different way. Okay, so it's going to be half a second.
1.3 与 Marvin Heiferman 访谈
60 or 80% of the activity that goes on in your brain is about deciphering visual data and visual input that you get. There are scientists who've done a tremendous amount of research on this, and it's within 13 milliseconds that you know what a picture is of. You can look at a blurry picture and you'll know it's a bedroom, or a kitchen, or a street scene. You don't need to see detail. The power of photography is way more complicated than people admit to. And I think there's psychological and physiological reasons that we respond to things that we respond to, as well as intellectual and emotional ones. So it's wildly complicated and it's terrific. It's great, it's great.
>> I loved the title of your book, Photography Changes Everything, because of course it does. And I thought maybe we'd start with talking a little bit about that project. >> So I spent about three years reaching out to almost 100 people, asking them to think how photography changed what they did. because I was very interested not in the power of images as museums often talk about them, but in terms of the consequentiality of images and how they really transform things.
I was sitting in a room with a bunch of environmental scientists surrounded by drones. >> Actual drones? >> Yeah. >> In the room? >> Yeah, drones were all there on shelves right? And we were talking about the project they were doing and they were showing me the kind of schematic God's eye view down through the drone's flight path where you could look at every image that the drone made. And each drone was making 2,000 images a day, right? And that was all really interesting. But I turned around and I looked to the people in the room thinking about Edward Steichen and aerial photography, and I said, does anybody here ever think about the history of aerial photography as you're doing this? And they said, no, right? >> Right. >> And I thought, well that's a really interesting thing, right? I mean, photography for the people in that room was a tool. They didn't care about the history of it and what got them to where they needed to be in terms of images. Photography is used by everybody and everybody uses it for all sorts of reasons. And images can be beautiful for all sorts of reasons and useful for all sorts of reasons and consequential for all sorts of reason.
>> Do you think it's important to tell a history of photography or do you think that that is sort of a 20th century goal? >> I think it's hugely important to talk about the history of the medium because it's not quite a universal language. And the idea that we're all visually literate is not quite true. We can all probably extract some very basic level of information from photographs. But I think you have to learn to understand how images work and how images are constructed. Who made the picture, why they make the picture, who edited the picture, who cropped the picture, who captioned the picture, what pictures did they leave out, what pictures are being censored. It's a malleable medium and I think people need to be aware of that. That's one of the big goals in visual literacy, is for people to understand how many different ways you can make and use and understand any kind of image.
There's nothing like it. There's no other experience like it. Because when we're walking around the world, you don't have time to see everything around you. For a moment, you can stop something and look at it in a way that you normally wouldn't see it. And I think that's part of the real fascination with still photography. It's kind of very existential, philosophical kind of medium. It lets you step outside yourself to kind of look at the world in a different way.
1. MoMA publications: books
约翰 萨卡斯基 著 , <<摄影师之眼 - 引言>>, 纽约现代艺术美术馆, 1966
Beaumont Newhall. “Documentary Photography.” In History of Photography: From 1839 to the Present. The Museum of Modern Art, 1937/1982, 234-246.
Peter Galassi. “Two Stories.” In American Photography 1890–1965. The Museum of Modern Art, 1995, 10-41.
Quentin Bajac. “Contemporary Photography at MoMA.” In Photography at MoMA: 1960–Now. The Museum of Modern Art, 2015, 10-15. Purchase the full publication at MoMAstore.org.
Richard Benson. “Modern Photography.” In The Printed Picture. The Museum of Modern Art, 2008, 144-173. Purchase the full publication at MoMAstore.org.
2. MoMA publications: articles and online resources
MoMA Learning: Photography
3. Additional reading: books
Marvin Heiferman. Photography Changes Everything. Aperture, 2012.
4. Additional reading: articles and online resources
The Printed Picture glossary
Marvin Heiferman. “Just Published! Photography Changes Everything.” The Bigger Picture: Exploring Archives and Smithsonian History.
Sarah Hermanson Meister. "On Close Inspection.” In The Photographer’s Playbook, Aperture, 2013, 224-225.
Sarah Hermanson Meister. Q&A about Photography. Quora, June 27, 2016.
The New York Times Lens: Photography, Video and Visual Journalism
Fotomuseum Winterthur Still Searching
5. Additional reading: curator’s choice
Edward Steichen. The Family of Man. The Museum of Modern Art, 1955, 2-21. Purchase the full publication at MoMAstore.org.
John Szarkowski. Looking at Photographs. The Museum of Modern Art, 1973, 9-30.