【资料搬运】新概念3必备36篇优秀文章

Siren蛋

来自: Siren蛋(如何) 2016-11-24 11:12:06

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    Siren蛋 (如何) 2016-11-24 11:14:59

    【新概念三 Lesson 53】In the public interest 为了公众的利益
    The Scandinavian countries are much admired all over the world for their enlightened social policies. Sweden has evolved an excellent system for protecting the individual citizen from high-handed or incompetent public officers. The system has worked so well, that it has been adopted in other countries too.
    The Swedes were the first to recognize that public officials like civil servants, police officers, health inspectors or tax-collectors can make mistakes or act over-zealously in the belief that they are serving the public. As long ago as 1809, the Swedish Parliament introduced a scheme to safeguard the interest of the individual. A parliamentary committee representing all political parties appoints a person who is suitably qualified to investigate private grievances against the State. The official title of the person is ‘Justiteombudsman’, but the Swedes commonly refer to him as the ‘J. O.’ or ‘Ombudsman’. The Ombudsman is not subject to political pressure. He investigates complaints large and small that come to him from all levels of society. As complaints must be made in writing, the Ombudsman receives an average of 1, 200 letters a year. He has eight lawyer assistants to help him and he examines every single letter in detail. There is nothing secretive about the Ombudsman's work, for his correspondence is open to public inspection. If a citizen's complaint is justified, the Ombudsman will act on his behalf. The action he takes varies according to the nature of the complaint. He may gently reprimand an official or even suggest to parliament that a law be altered. The following case is a typical example of the Ombudsman's work.
    A foreigner living in a Swedish village wrote to the Ombudsman complaining that he had been ill-treated by the police, simply because he was a foreigner. The Ombudsman immediately wrote to the Chief of Police in the district asking him to send a record of the case. There was nothing in the record to show that the foreigner's complaint was justified and the Chief of Police strongly denied the accusation. It was impossible for the Ombudsman to take action, but when he received a similar complaint from another foreigner in the same village, he immediately sent one of his lawyers to investigate the matter. The lawyer ascertained that a policeman had indeed dealt roughly with foreigners on several occasions. The fact that the policeman was prejudiced against foreigners could not be recorded in the official files. It was only possible for the Ombudsman to find this out by sending one of his representatives to check the facts. The policeman in question was severely reprimanded and was informed that if any further complaints were lodged against him, he would be prosecuted. The Ombudsman's prompt action at once put an end to an unpleasant practice which might have gone unnoticed.
    斯堪的纳维亚半岛各国实行的开明的社会政策,受到全世界的推崇。在瑞典,已逐渐形成了一种完善的制度以保护每个公民不受专横的和不称职的政府官员的欺压。由于这种制度行之有效,已被其他国家采纳。
    是瑞典人首先认识到政府工作人员如文职人员、警官、卫生稽查员、税务人员等等也会犯错误或者自以为在为公众服务而把事情做过了头。早在1809年,瑞典议会就建立了一个保护公民利益的制度。议会内有一个代表各政党利益的委员会,由它委派一位称职的人选专门调查个人对国家的意见。此人官衔为“司法特派员”,但瑞典人一般都管他叫“J.O.”,即“司法特派员”。司法特派员不受任何政治压力的制约。他听取社会各阶层的各种大小意见,并进行调查。由于意见均需用书面形式提出,司法特派员每年平均收到1,200封信。他有8位律帅做他的助手协助工作,每封信都详细批阅。司法特派员的工作没有什么秘密可言,他的信件是公开的,供公众监督。如果公民的意见正确,司法特派员便为他伸张正义。司法特派员采取的行动因意见的性质不同而有所不同。他可以善意地批评某位官员,也可以甚至向议会提议修改某项法律。下述事件是司法特派员工作的一个典型例子。
    一个住在瑞典乡村的外国人写信给司法特派员,抱怨说他受到警察虐待,原因就是因为他是个外国人。司法特派员立即写信给当地的警察局长,请他寄送与此事有关的材料。材料中没有任何文字记载证明外国人所说的情况符合事实,警察局长矢口否认这一指控。司法特派员难以处理。但是,当他又收到住在同一村庄的另一个外国人写的一封内容类似的投诉信时,他立即派出一位律师前去调查。律师证实有个警察确实多次粗鲁地对待外国人。警察歧视外国人的事在官方档案中不可能加以记载,司法特派员只有派他的代表去核对事实才能了解真相。当事的警察受到严厉斥责,并被告知,如果再有人投诉他,他将受到起诉。司法特派员及时采取的行动,迅速制止了这一起不愉快的事件,不然这件事可能因未得到人们注意而不了了之。

    【新概念三 Lesson 54】Instinct or cleverness? 是本能还是机智
    We have been brought up to fear insects. We regard them as unnecessary creatures that do more harm than good. We continually wage war on them, for they contaminate our food, carry diseases, or devour our crops. They sting or bite without provocation; they fly uninvited into our rooms on summer nights, or beat ageist our lighted windows. We live in dread not only of unpleasant insects like spiders or wasps, but of quite harmless one like moths. Reading about them increases our understanding without dispelling our fears. Knowing that the industrious ant lives in a highly organized society does nothing to prevent us from being filled with revulsion when we find hordes of them crawling over a carefully prepared picnic lunch. No matter how much we like honey, or how much we have read about the uncanny sense of direction which bees possess, we have a horror of being stung. Most of our fears are unreasonable, but they are impossible to erase. At the same time, however, insects are strangely fascinating. We enjoy reading about them, especially when we find that, like the praying mantis, they lead perfectly horrible lives. We enjoy staring at them, entranced as they go about their business, unaware (we hope) of our presence. Who has not stood in awe at the sight of a spider pouncing on a fly, or a column of ants triumphantly bearing home an enormous dead beetle?
    Last summer I spent days in the garden watching thousands of ants crawling up the trunk of my prize peach tree. The tree has grown against a warm wall on a sheltered side of the house. I am especially proud of it, not only because it has survived several severe winters, but because it occasionally produces luscious peaches. During the summer, I noticed that the leaves of the tree were beginning to wither. Clusters of tiny insects called aphides were to be found on the underside of the leaves. They were visited by a large colony of ants which obtained a sort of honey from them. I immediately embarked on an experiment which, even though if failed to get rid of the ants, kept me fascinated for twenty-four hours. I bound the base of the tree with sticky tape, making it impossible for the ants to reach the aphides. The tape was so stick that they did not dare to cross it. For a long time. I watched them scurrying around the base of the tree in bewilderment. I even went out at midnight with a torch and noted with satisfaction (and surprise) that the ants were still swarming around the sticky tape without being able to do anything about it. I got up early next morning hoping to find that the ants had given up in despair. Instead, I saw that they had discovered a new route. They were climbing up the wall of the house and then on to the leaves of the tree. I realized sadly that I had been completely defeated by their ingenuity. The ants had been quick to find an answer to my thoroughly unscientific methods!
    我们自幼就在对昆虫的惧怕中长大。我们把昆虫当作害多益少的无用东西。人类不断同昆虫斗争,因为昆虫弄脏我们的食物,传播疾病,吞噬庄稼。它们无缘无故地又叮又咬;夏天的晚上,它们未经邀请便飞到我们房间里,或者对着露出亮光的窗户乱扑乱撞。我们在日常生活中,不但憎恶如蜘蛛、黄蜂之类令人讨厌的昆虫,而且憎恶并无大害的飞蛾等。阅读有关昆虫的书能增加我们对它们的了解,却不能消除我们的恐惧的心理。即使知道勤奋的蚂蚁生活具有高度组织性的社会里,当看到大群蚂蚁在我们精心准备的午间野餐上爬行时,我们也无法抑制对它们的反感。不管我们多么爱吃蜂蜜,或读过多少关于蜜蜂具有神秘的识别方向的灵感的书,我们仍然十分害怕被蜂蜇。我们的恐惧大部分是没有道理的,但去无法消除。同时,不知为什么昆虫又是迷人的。我们喜欢看有关昆虫的书,尤其是当我们了解螳螂等过着一种令人生畏的生活时,就更加爱读有关昆虫的书了。我们喜欢入迷地看它们做事,它们不知道(但愿如此)我们就在它们身边。当看到蜘蛛扑向一只苍蝇时,一队蚂蚁抬着一只巨大的死甲虫凯旋归时,谁能不感到敬畏呢?
    去年夏天,我花了好几天时间站在花园里观察成千只蚂蚁爬上我那棵心爱的桃树的树干。那棵树是靠着房子有遮挡的一面暖墙生长的。我为这棵树感到特别自豪,不仅因为它度过了几个寒冬终于活了下来,而且还因为它有时结出些甘甜的桃子来。到了夏天,我发现树叶开始枯萎,结果在树叶背面找到成串的叫作蚜虫小虫子。蚜虫遭到一窝蚂蚁的攻击,蚂蚁从它们身上可以获得一种蜜。我当即动手作了一项试验,这项试验尽管没有使我摆脱这些蚂蚁,却使我着迷了24小时。我用一条胶带把桃树底部包上,不让蚂蚁接近蚜虫。胶带极粘,蚂蚁不敢从上面爬过。在很长一段时间里,我看见蚂蚁围着大树底部来回转悠,不知所措。半夜,我还拿着电筒来到花园里,满意地(同时惊奇地)发现那些蚂蚁还围着胶带团团转。无能为力。第二天早上,我起床后希望看见蚂蚁已因无望而放弃了尝试,结果却发现它们又找到一条新的路径。它们正在顺着房子的外墙往上爬,然后爬上树叶。我懊丧地感到败在了足智多谋的蚂蚁的手下。蚂蚁已很快找到了相应的对策,来对付我那套完全不科学的办法!

    【新概念三 lesson 59】 Collecting 收藏
    People tend to amass possessions, sometimes without being aware of doing so. Indeed they can have a delightful surprise when they find something useful which they did not know they owned. Those who never have to move house become indiscriminate collectors of what can only be described as clutter. They leave unwanted objects in drawers, cupboards and attics for years, in the belief that they may one day need just those very things. As they grow old, people also accumulate belongings for two other reasons, lack of physical and mental energy, both of which are essential in turning out and throwing away, and sentiment. Things owned for a long time are full of associations with the past, perhaps with relatives who are dead, and so they gradually acquire a value beyond their true worth.
    Some things are collected deliberately in the home in an attempt to avoid waste. Among these I would list string and brown paper, kept by thrifty people when a parcel has been opened, to save buying these two requisites. Collecting small items can easily become a mania. I know someone who always cuts sketches out from newspapers of model clothes that she would like to buy, if she had the money. As she is not rich, the chances that she will ever be able to afford such purchases are remote; but she is never sufficiently strongminded to be able to stop the practice. It is a harmless habit, but it litters up her desk to such an extent that every time she opens it; loose bits of paper fall out in every direction.
    Collecting as a serious hobby is quite different and has many advantages. It provides relaxation for leisure hours, as just looking at one's treasures is always a joy. One does not have to go outside for amusement, since the collection is housed at home. Whatever it consists of, stamps, records, first editions of books, china, glass, antique furniture, pictures, model cars, stuffed birds, toy animals, there is always something to do in connection with it, from finding the right place for the latest addition, to verifying facts in reference books. This hobby educates one not only in the chosen subject, but also in general matters which have some bearing on it. There are also other benefits. One wants to meet like-minded collectors, to get advice, to compare notes, to exchange articles, to show off the latest find. So one's circle of friends grows. Soon the hobby leads to travel, perhaps to a meeting in another town, possibly a trip abroad in search of a rare specimen, for collectors are not confined to any one country. Over the years, one may well become an authority on one's hobby and will very probably be asked to give informal talks to little gatherings and then, if successful, to larger audiences. In this way self-confidence grows, first from mastering a subject, then from being able to talk about it. Collecting, by occupying spare time so constructively, makes a person contented, with no time for boredom.
    人们喜欢收藏东西,有时并没有意识到自己在这样做。确实,一旦无意之中从自己的收藏品中找到某件有用的东西时,可以给人一种惊喜的感觉。那些从来不必搬家的人们成了一种无所不容的收藏家。他们专门收藏那些只能被称作杂货的东西。他们在抽屉里、碗柜中、阁楼上堆放着一些不用的东西,一放就是好几年,相信总有一天需要的正好是那些东西。人们年老之后也喜欢收藏东西,不过是出于两个不同的原因:一是体力、精力均告不佳,这二者是清除无用的东西必不可少的因素;另一个原因是感情因素。东西搁得时间久了,便会充满着与过去岁月的联系,比方说与死去的亲戚有关。因此这些东西慢慢获得了一种超出它本身的价值。
    居家度日,有目的地收藏某些东西是为了防止浪费。这些东西中我想举出线绳和包装纸为例。节俭的人们打开包裹后便把这两样必备的东西收藏起来,省得日后去买。收集小玩艺儿很容易着迷。我认识一个人,她总喜欢从报纸上剪下流行服装的图样,等以后有钱时去买服装。由于她并不富裕,她买得起这些服装的可能性十分渺茫。但她又缺乏足够坚强的意志把这一收集活动停下来。这种习惯无害,只是把写字台里堆得满满当当,以致每次打开抽屉总能带出许多纸片四处飞扬。
    作为一种严肃的业余爱好的收藏活动完全是另外一回事,它具有许多益处。它可以使人在闲暇中得到休息,因为欣赏自己收藏的珍品总会充满了乐趣。人们不必走到户外去寻求娱乐,因为收藏品都是存放在家中。不管收藏品是什么,邮票、唱片、头版书籍、瓷器、玻璃杯、老式家具、绘画、模型汽车、鸟类标本,还是玩具动物,从为新增添的收藏品寻找摆放位置到核对参考书中的事实,总归有事可做。这种爱好不仅能使人从选择的专题中受到教育,而且也能从与之有关的一般事物中获得长进。除此之外,还有其他的益处。收藏者要会见情趣相投的收藏者,以获取教益、交流经验、交换收藏品、炫耀自己的最新收藏。朋友的圈子就这样不断扩太。用不了多久,有这种爱好的人便开始旅行,也许是去另一个城市参加会议,也可能是出国寻找一件珍品,因为收藏家是不分国籍的。一人积了多年经验会成为自己这种爱好的权威,很可能应邀在小型集会上作非正式的讲话。如果讲得好,可能向更多的人发表演说。这样,你自信心不断增强,先是因为掌握了一门学问,接下来是因为能够就此发表见解。收藏活动通过富有建设性地利用业余时间使人感到心满意足,不再有无聊之日。

    【新概念三 Lesson 60】 Too early and too late 太早和太晚
    Punctuality is a necessary habit in all public affairs in civilized society. Without it, nothing could ever be brought to a conclusion; everything would be in a state of chaos. Only in a sparsely-populated rural community is it possible to disregard it. In ordinary living, there can be some tolerance of unpunctuality. The intellectual, who is working on some abstruse problem, has everything coordinated and organized for the matter in hand. He is therefore forgiven, if late for a dinner party. But people are often reproached for unpunctuality when their only fault is cutting things fine. It is hard for energetic, quick-minded people to waste time, so they are often tempted to finish a job before setting out to keep an appointment. If no accidents occur on the way, like punctured tyres, diversions of traffic, sudden descent of fog, they will be on time. They are often more industrious, useful citizens than those who are never late. The over-punctual can be as much a trial to others as the unpunctual. The guest who arrives half an hour too soon is the greatest nuisance. Some friends of my family had this irritating habit. The only thing to do was ask them to come half an hour later than the other guests. Then they arrived just when we wanted them.
    If you are catching a train, it is always better to be comfortably early than even a fraction of a minute too late. Although being early may mean wasting a little time, this will be less than if you miss the train and have to wait an hour or more for the next one; and you avoid the frustration of arriving at the very moment when the train is drawing out of the station and being unable to get on it. An even harder situation is to be on the platform in good time for a train and still to see it go off without you. Such an experience befell a certain young girl the first time she was travelling alone.
    She entered the station twenty minutes before the train was due, since her parents had impressed upon her that it would be unforgivable to miss it and cause the friends with whom she was going to stay to make two journeys to meet her. She gave her luggage to a porter and showed him her ticket. To her horror he said that she was two hours too soon. She felt in her handbag for the piece of paper on which her father had written down all the details of the journey and gave it to the porter. He agreed that a train did come into the station at the time on the paper and that it did stop, but only to take on mail, not passengers. The girl asked to see a timetable, feeling sure that her father could not have made such a mistake. The porter went to fetch one and arrived back with the station master, who produced it with a flourish and pointed out a microscopic ‘o’ beside the time of the arrival of the train at his station; this little ‘o’ indicated that the train only stopped for mail. Just as that moment the train came into the station. The girl, tears streaming down her face, begged to be allowed to slip into the guard's van. But the station master was adamant: rules could not be broken. And she had to watch that train disappear towards her destination while she was left behind.
    准时是文明社会中进行一切社交活动时必须养成的习惯。不准时将一事无成,事事都会陷入混乱不堪的境地。只有在人口稀少的农村,才可以忽视准时的习惯。在日常生活中人们可以容忍一定程度的不准时。一个专心钻研某个复杂问题的知识分子,为了搞好手头的研究,要把一切都协调一致、组织周密。因此,他要是赴宴迟到了会得到谅解。但有些人不准时常常是因为掐钟点所致,他们常常会受到责备。精力充沛、头脑敏捷的人极不愿意浪费时间,因此他们常想做完一件事后再去赴约。要是路上没有发生如爆胎、改道、突然起雾等意外事故,他们是决不会迟到的。他们与那些从不迟到的人相比,常常是更勤奋有用的公民。早到的人同迟到的人一样令人讨厌。客人提前半小时到达是最令人讨厌的。我家有几个朋友就有这种令人恼火的习惯。唯一的办法就是请他们比别的客人晚来半小时。这样,他们可以恰好在我们要求的时间到达。
    如果赶火车,早到总比晚到好,哪怕早到一会儿也好。虽然早到可能意味着浪费一点时间,但这比误了火车、等上一个多小时坐下一班车浪费的时间要少,而且可以避免那种正好在火车驶出站时赶到车站,因上不去车而感到的沮丧。更难堪的情况是虽然及时赶到站台上,却眼睁睁地看着那趟火车启动,把你抛下。一个小姑娘第一次单独出门就碰到了这种情况。
    在火车进站20分钟前她就进了车站。因为她的父母再三跟她说,如果误了这趟车,她的东道主朋友就得接她两趟,这是不应该的。她把行李交给搬运工并给他看了车票。搬运工说她早到了两个小时,她听后大吃一惊。她从钱包里摸出一张纸条,那上面有她父亲对这次旅行的详细说明,她把这张纸条交给了搬运工。搬运工说,正如纸条上所说,确有一趟火车在那个时刻到站,但它只停站装邮件,不载旅客。姑娘要求看时刻表,因为她相信父亲不能把这么大的事给弄错。搬运工跑回去取时刻表,同时请来了站长。站长拿着时刻表一挥手,指着那趟列车到站时刻旁边的一个很小的圆圈标记。这个标记表示列车是为装邮件而停车。正在这时,火车进站了。女孩泪流满面,央求让她不声不响地到押车员车厢里去算了。但站长态度坚决,规章制度不能破环,姑娘只得眼看着那趟火车消逝在她要去的方向而撇下了她。

    【新概念四 Lesson 1】 Finding fossil man 发现化石人
    We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where people first learned to write.But there are some parts of the world where even now people cannot write. The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagas----legends handed down from one generation of story-tellers to another. These legends are useful because they can tell us something about migrations of people who lived long ago, but none could write down what they did. Anthropologists wondered where the remote ancestors of the Polynesian peoples now living in the Pacific Islands came from. The sagas of these people explain that some of them came from Indonesia about 2,000 years ago.
    But the first people who were like ourselves lived so long ago that even their sagas, if they had any, are forgotten. So archaeologists have neither history nor legends to help them to find out where the first‘modern men’ came from.
    Fortunately, however, ancient men made tools of stone, especially flint, because this is easier to shape than other kinds. They may also have used wood and skins, but these have rotted away. Stone does not decay, and so the tools of long ago have remained when even thebones of the men who made them have disappeared without trace.
    我们从书籍中可以读到5,000年前近东发生的事情,那里的人最早学会了写字。但直到现在,世界上仍然有些地方;人们还不会书写。他们保存历史的唯一办法是将历史当作传说讲述,由讲述人一代接一代地将史实描述为传奇故事口传下来。这些传说是很有用的,因为它们能告诉我们以往人们迁居的情况。但是;没有人能把他们当时做的事情记载下来。人类学家过去不清楚如今生活在太平洋诸岛上的波利尼西亚人的祖先来自何方,当地人的传说却告诉了人们:其中有一部分是约在2,000年前从印度尼西亚迁来的。
    但是,和我们相似的原始人生活的年代太久远了;因此,有关他们的传说即使有如今也失传了。于是,考古学家们既缺乏历史记载,又无口头传说来帮助他们弄清最早的“现代人”是从哪里来的。
    然而,幸运的是,远古人用石头制作了工具,特别是用燧石,因力燧石较之其他石头更易成形。他们也可能用过木头和兽皮,但这类东西早已腐烂殆尽。石头是不会腐烂的。因此,尽管制造这些工具的人的骨头早已荡然无存;但远古时代的石头工具却保存了下来。

    【新概念四 Lesson 2】 Spare that spider不要伤害蜘蛛
    Why, you may wonder, should spiders be our friends? Because they destroy so many insects, and insects include some of the greatest enemies of the human race.Insects would make it impossible for us to live in the world; they would devour all our crops and kill our flocks and herds, if it were not for the protection we get from insect-eating animals.We owe a lot to the birds and beasts who eat insects but all of them put together kill only a fraction of the number destroyed by spiders.Moreover, unlike some of the other insect eaters, spiders never do the least harm to us or our belongings.
    Spiders are not insects, as many people think, nor even nearly related to them.One can tell the difference almost at a glance, for a spider always has eight legs and an insect never more than six.
    How many spiders are engaged in this work on our behalf? One authority on spiders made a census of the spiders in a grass field in the south of England, and he estimated that there were more than 2,250,000 in one acre; that is something like 6,000,000 spiders of different kinds on a football pitch.Spiders are busy for at least half the year in killing insects.It is impossible to make more than the wildest guess at how many they kill, but they are hungry creatures, not content with only three meals a day.It has been estimated that the weight of all the insects destroyed by spiders in Britain in one year would be greater than the total weight of all the human beings in the country.
    你可能会觉得奇怪,蜘蛛怎么会是我们的朋友呢?因为它们能消灭那么多的昆虫,其中包括一些人类的大敌。要不是人类受一些食虫动物的保护,昆虫就会使我们无法在地球上生活下去,昆虫会吞食我们的全部庄稼,杀死我们的成群的牛羊。我们要十分感谢那些吃昆虫的鸟和兽,然而把它们所杀死的昆虫全部加在一起也只相当于蜘蛛所消灭的一小部分。此外,蜘蛛不同于其他食虫动物,它们丝毫不危害我们和我们的财物。
    许多人认为蜘蛛是昆虫,但它们不是昆虫,甚至与昆虫毫无关系。人们几乎一眼就能看出二者的差异,因为蜘蛛都是8条腿,而昆虫的腿从不超过6条。
    有多少蜘蛛在为我们效力呢?一位研究蜘蛛的权威对英国南部一块草坪上的蜘蛛作了一次调查。他估计每英亩草坪里有225万多只蜘蛛。这就是说,在一个足球场上约有600万只不同种类的蜘蛛。蜘蛛至少有半年忙于吃昆虫。它们一年中消灭了多少昆虫,我们简直无法猜测,它们是吃不饱的动物,不满意一日三餐。据估计,在英国蜘蛛一年里所消灭昆虫的重量超过了这个国家人口的总重量。

    【新概念四 Lesson 3】 Matterhorn man马特霍恩山区人
    Modern alpinists try to climb mountains by a route which will give them good sport, and the more difficult it is, the more highly it is regarded.In the pioneering days, however, this was not the case at all.The early climbers were looking for the easiest way to the top, because the summit was the prize they sought, especially if it had never been attained before.It is true that during their explorations they often faced difficulties and dangers of the most perilous nature, equipped in a manner which would make a modern climber shudder at the thought, but they did not go out of their way to court such excitement.They had a single aim, a solitary goal---the top!
    It is hard for us to realize nowadays how difficult it was for the pioneers.Except for one or two places such as Zermatt and Chamonix, which had rapidly become popular, Alpine villages tended to be impoverished settlements cut off from civilization by the high mountains.Such inns as there were generally dirty and flea-ridden; the food simply local cheese accompanied by bread often twelve months old, all washed down with coarse wine.Often a valley boasted no inn at all, and climbers found shelter wherever they could---sometimes with the local priest (who was usually as poor as his parishioners), sometimes with shepherds or cheese-makers.Invariably the background was the same: dirt and poverty, and very uncomfortable.For men accustomed to eating seven-course dinners and sleeping between fine linen sheets at home, the change to the Alps must have been very hard indeed.
    现代登山运动员总想找一条能够给他们带来运动乐趣的路线来攀登山峰。他们认为,道路愈艰险愈带劲儿。然而,在登山运动的初期,全然不是这种情况。早期登山者所寻找的是通往山顶的最方便的途径,因为顶峰——特别是前人未曾到过的顶峰——才是他们寻求的目标。确实,在探险中他们经常遇到惊心动魄的困难和危险,而他们装备之简陋足以使现代登山者一想起来就胆战心惊。但是,他们并非故意寻求这种刺激,他们只有一个目的,唯一的目标——顶峰!
    我们今天很难想像昔日的登山先驱们是多么艰苦。除了泽曼特和夏蒙尼等一两个很快出了名的地方外,阿尔卑斯山山区的小村几乎全是高山环抱、与世隔绝的穷乡僻壤。那里的小客栈一般都很肮脏,而且跳蚤猖獗。食物是当地的干酪和通常存放了一年之久的面包,人们就着劣质酒吞下这种食物。山谷里常常没有小客栈,登山者只好随遇而安。有时同当地牧师(他通常和他的教民一样穷)住在一起,有时同牧羊人或制乳酪的人住在一起。无论住在哪儿,情况都一样:肮脏、贫穷,极其不舒适。对于过惯了一顿饭吃7道菜、睡亚麻细布床单的人来说,变换一下生活环境来到阿尔卑斯山山区,那一定是很艰难的。

  • Siren蛋

    Siren蛋 (如何) 2016-11-24 11:15:48

    【新概念四 Lesson 6】 The sporting spirit体育的精神
    I am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates goodwill between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to meet on the battlefield.Even if one didn't know from concrete examples (the 1936 Olympic Games, for instance) that international sporting contests lead to orgies of hatred, one could deduce it fromgeneral principles.
    Nearly all the sports practiced nowadays are competitive.You play to win, and the game has little meaning unless you do your utmost to win.On the village green, where you pick up sides and no feeling of local patriotism is involved, it is possible to play simply for the fun and exercise: but as soon as the question of prestige arises, as soon as you feel that you and some larger unit will be disgraced if you lose, the most savage combative instincts are aroused.Anyone who has played even in a school football match knows this.At the international level, sport is frankly mimic warfare.But the significant thing is not the behavior of the players but the attitude of the spectators: and, behind the spectators, of the nations who work themselves into furies over these absurd contests, and seriously believe --- at any rate for short periods --- that running, jumping and kicking a ball are tests of national virtue.
    当我听人们说体育运动可创造国家之间的友谊,还说各国民众若在足球场或板球场上交锋,就不愿在战场上残杀的时候,我总是惊愕不已。一个人即使不能从具体的事例(如1936年奥林匹克运动会)了解到国际运动比赛会导致疯狂的仇恨,也可以从常理中推断出结论。
    现在开展的体育运动几乎都是竞争性的。参加比赛就是为了取胜。如果不拚命去赢,比赛就没有什么意义了。在乡间的草坪上,当你随意组成两个队,并且不涉及任何地方情绪时,那才有可能是单纯为了娱乐和锻炼而进行比赛。可是一旦涉及到荣誉问题,一旦你想到你和某一团体会因你输了而丢脸时,那么最野蛮的争斗天性便会被激发起来。即使是仅仅参加过学校足球赛的人也有这种体会。在国际比赛中,体育简直是一场模拟战争。但是,要紧的还不是运动员的行为,而是观众的态度,以及观众身后各个国家的态度。面对着这些荒唐的比赛,参赛的各个国家会如痴如狂,甚至煞有介事地相信——至少在短期内如此——跑跑、跳跳、踢踢球是对一个民族品德素质的检验。

    【新概念四 Lesson 15】 Secrecy in industry 工业中的秘密
    Two factors weigh heavily against the effectiveness of scientific research in industry. One is the general atmosphere of secrecy in which it is carried out, the other the lack of freedom of the individual research worker. In so far as any inquiry is a secret one, it naturally limits all those engaged in carrying it out from effective contact with their fellow scientists either in other countries or in universities, or even, often enough, in other departments of the same firm. The degree of secrecy naturally varies considerably. Some of the bigger firms are engaged in researches which are of such general and fundamental nature that it is a positive advantage to them not to keep them secret. Yet a great many processes depending on such research are sought for with complete secrecy until the stage at which patents can be taken out. Even more processes are never patented at all but kept as secret processes. This applies particularly to chemical industries, where chance discoveries play a much larger part than they do in physical and mechanical industries. Sometimes the secrecy goes to such an extent that the whole nature of the research cannot be mentioned. Many firms, for instance, have great difficulty in obtaining technical or scientific books from libraries because they are unwilling to have their names entered as having taken out such and such a book for fear the agents of other firms should be able to trace the kind of research they are likely to be undertaking.
    有两个因素严重地妨碍着工业中科学研究的效率:一是科研工作中普遍存在的保密气氛;二是研究人员缺乏个人自由。任何一项研究都涉及到保密,那些从事科研的人员自然受到了限制。他们不能和其他国家、其他大学、甚至往往不能与本公司的其他部门的同行们进行有效的接触。保密程度自然差别很大。某些大公司进行的研究属于一般和基础性的研究。因此不保密对他们才有利。然而,依赖这种研究的很多工艺程序是在完全保密的情况下进行的,直到可以取得专利权的阶段为止。更多的工艺过程根本就不会取得专利权,而是作为秘方保存着。这在化学工业方面尤其突出。同物理和机械工业相比,化学工业中偶然发现的机会要多得多。有时,保密竟达到了这样的程度,即连研究工作的整个性质都不准提及。比如,很多公司向图书馆借阅科技书籍时感到很困难,因为它们不愿让人家记下它们公司的名字和借阅的某一本书。他们生怕别的公司的情报人员据此摸到他们可能要从事的某项科研项目。

    【新概念四 Lesson 16】 The modern city 现代城市
    In the organization of industrial life the influence of the factory upon the physiological and mental state of the workers has been completely neglected.Modern industry is based on the conception of the maximum production at lowest cost, in order that an individual or a group of individuals may earn as much money as possible.It has expanded without any idea of the true nature of the human beings who run the machines, and without giving any consideration to the effects produced on the individuals and on their descendants by the artificial mode of existence imposed by the factory.The great cities have been built with no regard for us.||The shape and dimensions of the skyscrapers depend entirely on the necessity of obtaining the maximum income per square foot of ground, and of offering to the tenants offices and apartments that please them.This caused the construction of gigantic buildings where too large masses of human beings are crowded together.Civilized men like such a way of living.While they enjoy the comfort and banal luxury of their dwelling, they do not realize that they are deprived of the necessities of life.The modern city consists of monstrous edifices and of dark, narrow streets full of petrol fumes and toxic gases, torn by the noise of the taxi-cabs, lorries and buses, and thronged ceaselessly by great crowds.||Obviously, it has not been planned for the good of its inhabitants. ||
    在工业生活的组织中,工厂对工人的生理和精神状态的影响完全被忽视了。现代工业的基本概念是:以最低成本获取最多产品,为的是让某个个人或某一部分人尽可能多地赚钱。现代工业发展起来了,却根本没想到操作机器的人的本质。工厂把一种人为的生存方式强加给工人,却不顾及这种生存方式给工人及其后代带来的影响。大城市的建设毫不关心我们。摩天大楼完全是按这样的需要修建的:每平方英尺地皮取得最大收入和向租房人提供使他满意的办公室和住房。这样就导致了许多摩天大厦拔地而起,大厦内众多的人挤在一起。文明人喜欢这样一种生活方式。在享受自己住宅的舒适和庸俗的豪华时,却没有意识到被剥夺了生活所必需的东西。大得吓人的高楼和阴暗狭窄的街道组成了今日现代化的城市。街道上充斥着汽油味和有毒气体,出租汽车、卡车、公共汽车的噪音刺耳难忍,络绎不绝的人群挤来挤去。显然,现代化的城市不是为居民的利益而规划的。

    【新概念四 Lesson 22】 Knowledge and progress 知识和进步
    Why does the idea of progress loom so large in the modern world? Surely because progress of a particular kind is actually taking place around us and is becoming more and more manifest.Although mankind has undergone no general improvement in intelligence or morality, it has made extraordinary progress in the accumulation of knowledge.|| Knowledge began to increase as soon as the thoughts of one individual could be communicated to another by means of speech.With the invention of writing, a great advance was made,for knowledge could then be not only communicated but also stored.Libraries made education possible, and education in its turn added to libraries: the growth of knowledge followed a kind of compound-interest law,which was greatly enhanced by the invention of printing.All this was comparatively slow until, with the coming of science, the tempo was suddenly raised.Then knowledge began to be accumulated according to a systematic plan.The trickle became a stream; the stream has now become a torrent.|| Moreover, as soon as new knowledge is acquired, it is now turned to practical account.What is called‘modern civilization’is not the result of a balanced development of all man's nature, but of accumulated knowledge applied to practical life.The problem now facing humanity is: What is going to be done with all this knowledge? As is so often pointed out, knowledge is a two-edged weapon which can be used equally for good or evil.It is now being used indifferently for both.Could any spectacle, for instance, be more grimly whimsical than that of gunners using science to shatter men's bodies while, close at hand, surgeons use it to restore them? We have to ask ourselves very seriously what will happen if this twofold use of knowledge, with its ever-increasing power,continues.||
    为什么进步这个概念在现代世界显得如此突出?无疑是因为有一种特殊的进步实际上正在我们周围发生,而且变得越来越明显。虽然人类在智力和道德上没有得到普遍提高,但在知识积累方面却取得了巨大的进步。人一旦能用语言同别人交流思想,知识的积累便开始了。随着书写的发明,又迈进了一大步,因为这样一来,知识不仅能交流,而且能储存了。藏书使教育成为可能,而教育反过来又丰富了藏书,因为知识的增长遵循着一种“滚雪球”的规律。印刷术的发明又大大提高了知识增长的速度。所有这些发展都比较缓慢,而随着科学的到来,增长的速度才突然加快。于是,知识便开始有系统有计划地积累起来。涓涓细流汇成了小溪,小溪现已变成了奔腾的江河。而且,新知识一旦获得,便得到实际应用。所谓“现代文明”并不是人的天性平衡发展的结果,而是积累起来的知识应用到实际生活中的结果。现在人类面临的问题是:用这些知识去做什么?正像人们常常指出的,知识是一把双刃刀,可以用于造福,也可用来为害。人们现在正漫不经心地把知识用于这两个方面,例如:炮兵利用科学毁坏人的身体、而外科医生就在附近用科学抢救被炮兵毁坏的人体,还有什么情景比这更可怕、更怪诞的吗?我们不得不严肃地问问我们自己:随着日益增长的知识的力量,如果我们继续利用知识的这种双重性,将会发生什么样的情况呢?

    【新概念四 Lesson 32】 Galileo reborn 伽利略的复生
    In his own lifetime Galileo was the centre of violent controversy; but the scientific dust has long since settled, and today we can see even his famous clash with the Inquisition in something like its proper perspective. But, in contrast, it is only in modern times that Galileo has become a problem child for historians of science.
    The old view of Galileo was delightfully uncomplicated. He was, above all, a man who experimented: who despised the prejudices and book learning of the Aristotelians, who put his questions to nature instead of to the ancients, and who drew his conclusions fearlessly. He had been the first to turn a telescope to the sky, and he had seen there evidence enough to overthrow Aristotle and Ptolemy together. He was the man who climbed the Leaning Tower of Pisa and dropped various weights from the top, who rolled balls down inclined planes, and then generalized the results of his many experiments into the famous law of free fall.
    But a closer study of the evidence, supported by a deeper sense of the period, and particularly by a new consciousness of the philosophical undercurrents in the scientific revolution, has profoundly modified this view of Galileo. Today, although the old Galileo lives on in many popular writings, among historians of science a new and more sophisticated picture has emerged. At the same time our sympathy for Galileo's opponents has grown somewhat. His telescopic observations are justly immortal; they aroused great interest at the time, they had important theoretical consequences, and they provided a striking demonstration of the potentialities hidden in instruments and apparatus. But can we blame those who looked and failed to see what Galileo saw, if we remember that to use a telescope at the limit of its powers calls for long experience and intimate familiarity with one's instrument? Was the philosopher who refused to look through Galileo's telescope more culpable than those who alleged that the spiral nebulae observed with Lord Rosse's great telescope in the eighteen-forties were scratches left by the grinder? We can perhaps forgive those who said the moons of Jupiter were produced by Galileo's spyglass if we recall that in his day, as for centuries before, curved glass was the popular contrivance for producing not truth but illusion, untruth; and if a single curved glass would distort nature, how much more would a pair of them?
    伽利略在世时是激烈论战的中心。但是,自他逝世以来,那场科学上的纷争早已平息了下来,甚至他和宗教法庭的著名冲突,我们今天也能正确如实地看待。但是相比之下,对于科学史家来说,伽利略只是在现代才变成一个新的难题。
    令人高兴的是,过去对伽利略的看法并不复杂。他首先是个实验工作者,他蔑视亚里士多德学派的偏见和空洞的书本知识。他向自然界而不是向古人提出问题,并大胆地得出自己的结论。他是第一个把望远镜对准天空的人,观察到的论据足以把亚里士多德和托勒密一起推翻。他就是那个曾经爬上比萨斜塔,从塔顶向下抛掷各种重物的人;他就是那个使球体沿斜面向下滚动,然后将多次实验结果概括成著名的自由落体定律的人。
    但是,对那个时代的深化了解,尤其是以科学革命中哲学潜流的新意识为依据,进一步仔细研究,就会极大地改变对伽利略的看法。今天,虽然已故的伽利略继续活在许多通俗读物中,但在科学史家中间,一个新的更加复杂的伽利略的形象出现了。与此同时,我们对伽利略的反对派的同情也有所增加。伽利略用望远镜所作的观察确实是不朽的,这些观察在当时引起了人们极大的兴趣,具有重要的理论意义,并充分显示出了仪表和仪器的潜在力量。但是,如果我们想到,使用一架倍数有限的望远镜需要长期的经验和对自己仪器的熟悉程度,那么我们怎么能去责备观察了天空但没有看到伽利略所看到的东西的那些人呢?某位哲学家曾拒绝使用伽利略的望远镜去观察天空;到了19世纪40年代,有人硬把罗斯勋爵高倍望远镜观测到的螺旋状星云说成是磨镜工留下的磨痕。难道反对伽利略的哲学家比诋毁罗斯勋爵造谣者应受到更大的谴责吗?如果我们回想一下伽利略之前的几个世纪期间,曲面镜一直是一种用于产生幻影而不是产生真象的把戏装置,那么我们就会原谅那些当初把伽利略观察到的木星卫星说成是伽利略用他的小望远镜变出来的人们,何况一片曲面镜就可歪曲自然,那么伽利略的两片曲面镜对自然的歪曲又该多大呢?

    【新概念四 Lesson 33】 Education 教育
    Education is one of the key words of our time. A man without an education, many of us believe, is an unfortunate victim of adverse circumstances, deprived of one of the greatest twentieth-century opportunities. Convinced of the importance of education, modern states ‘invest’ in institutions of learning to get back ‘interest’ in the form of a large group of enlightened young men and women who are potential leaders. Education, with its cycles of instruction so carefully worked out, punctuated by text-books----those purchasable wells of wisdom----what would civilization be like without its benefits?
    So much is certain: that we would have doctors and preachers, lawyers and defendants, marriages and births---but our spiritual outlook would be different. We would lay less stress on ‘facts and figures’ and more on a good memory, on applied psychology, and on the capacity of a man to get along with his fellow-citizens. If our educational system were fashioned after its bookless past we would have the most democratic form of ‘college’ imaginable. Among tribal people all knowledge inherited by tradition is shared by all; it is taught to every member of the tribe so that in this respect everybody is equally equipped for life.
    It is the ideal condition of the ‘equal start’ which only our most progressive forms of modern education try to regain. In primitive cultures the obligation to seek and to receive the traditional instruction is binding to all. There are no ‘illiterates’----if the term can be applied to peoples without a script----while our own compulsory school attendance became law in Germany in 1642, in France in 1806, and in England in 1876, and is still non-existent in a number of ‘civilized’ nations. This shows how long it was before we deemed it necessary to make sure that all our children could share in the knowledge accumulated by the ‘happy few’ during the past centuries.
    Education in the wilderness is not a matter of monetary means. All are entitled to an equal start. There is none of the hurry which, in our society, often hampers the full development of a growing personality. There, a child grows up under the ever-present attention of his parents; therefore the jungles and the savannahs know of no ‘juvenile delinquency’. No necessity of making a living away from home results in neglect of children, and no father is confronted with his inability to ‘buy’ an education for his child.
    教育是我们这个时代的关键词之一。我们许多人都相信,一个没有受过教育的人,是逆境的牺牲品,被剥夺了20世纪最优越的机会之一。现代国家深深懂得教育的重要性,对教育机构投资,收回的“利息”便是培养出大批有知识的男女青年,这些人可能会成为未来的栋梁。教育,以其教学周期如此精心地安排,并以教科书—那些可以买到的智慧源泉—予以强化,如果不受其惠,文明将会是个什么样子呢?
    至少,这些是可以肯定的:虽然我们还会有医生和牧师、律师和被告、婚姻和生育,但人们的精神面貌将是另一个样子。人们不会再重视“资料和数据”,而靠好记性、实用心理学和与同伴相处的能力。如果我们的教育制度仿效没有书籍的古代教育,我们的学院将具有可以想像得出的最民主的形式了。在部落中,通过传统继承的知识为所有人共享,并传授给部落中的每一个成员。从这个意义上讲,人人受到的有关生活本领的教育是相等的。
    这就是我们最进步的现代教育试图恢复的“平等起步”的理想状况。在原始文化中,寻求和接受传统教育的义务对全民都有约束力,因而没有“文盲”(如果这个字眼儿可以用于没有文字的民族的话)。而我们的义务教育成为法律在德国是在1642年,在法国是在1806年,在英国是在1876年。今天,在许多“文明”国家里,义务教育迄今尚未实行。这说明,经过了多么漫长的时间之后,我们才认识到,有必要确保我们的孩子享有多少个世纪以来由“少数幸运者”所积累起来的知识。
    荒凉地区的教育不是钱的问题,所有的人都享有平等起步的权利。那里没有我们今天社会中的匆忙生活,而匆忙的生活常常妨碍个性的全面发展。荒凉地区的孩子无时无刻不在父母关怀下成长。因此,丛林和荒凉地区不知道什么叫“青少年犯罪”。人们没有必要离家谋生,所以不会产生孩子无人管的问题,也不存在父亲无力为孩子支付教育费用而犯难的问题。

    【新概念四 Lesson 34】Adolescence 青春期
    Parents are often upset when their children praise the homes of their friends and regard it as a slur on their own cooking, or cleaning, or furniture, and often are foolish enough to let the adolescents see that they are annoyed. They may even accuse them of disloyalty, or make some spiteful remark about the friends' parents. Such a loss of dignity and descent into childish behavior on the part of the adults deeply shocks the adolescents, and makes them resolve that in future they will not talk to their parents about the places or people they visit. Before very long the parents will be complaining that the child is so secretive and never tells them anything, but they seldom realize that they have brought this on themselves.
    Disillusionment with the parents, however good and adequate they may be both as parents and as individuals, is to some degree inevitable. Most children have such a high ideal of their parents, unless the parents themselves have been unsatisfactory, that it can hardly hope to stand up to a realistic evaluation. Parents would be greatly surprised and deeply touched if they realized how much belief their children usually have in their character and infallibility, and how much this faith means to a child. If parents were prepared for this adolescent reaction, and realized that it was a sign that the child was growing up and developing valuable powers of observation and independent judgment, they would not be so hurt, and therefore would not drive the child into opposition by resenting and resisting it.
    The adolescent, with his passion for sincerity, always respects a parent who admits that he is wrong, or ignorant, or even that he has been unfair or unjust. What the child cannot forgive is the parents' refusal to admit these charges if the child knows them to be true.
    Victorian parents believed that they kept their dignity by retreating behind an unreasoning authoritarian attitude; in fact they did nothing of the kind, but children were then too cowed to let them know how they really felt. Today we tend to go to the other extreme, but on the whole this is a healthier attitude both for the child and the parent. It is always wiser and safer to face up to reality, however painful it may be at the moment.
    当家长听到孩子赞扬自己朋友的家时,总感到不安,认为这是孩子在嫌弃自家的饭菜、卫生、或家具,而且愚蠢地让孩子看出自己的烦恼。他们甚至责备孩子不忠,或者讲些小朋友家长的坏话。家长这种有失身份和孩子气的作法使青春期的孩子大为震惊,决心以后不再向父母讲述去过的地方和见过的人。不要很久,家长就会抱怨孩子守口如瓶,什么事也不告诉他们,殊不知这是他们自找的。
    不管家长的人品有多么好,作为父母又多么合格,孩子们对家长幻想的破灭在某种程度上是不可避免的。除非父母自身不能令人满意,大多数孩子对父母估价过高,以致这种估价很难指望经受住现实的考验。如果家长意识到孩子们通常是多么相信家长的品行和绝对正确,意识到孩子们的这种信念会对孩子产生多么大的影响,那么家长会大为吃惊和深受感动的。如果家长对青少年的这种反应有思想准备,并且意识到这象征着孩子们正在成熟和正在发展宝贵的观察力、独立判断力,那么他们就不会那样伤心,也就不会由于怨恨和抵触这种反应,而把孩子推到自己的对立面去。
    青少年酷爱真诚,对于能够承认错误或无知、甚至承认自己做得不公平或不公正的父母,他们总是尊敬的。孩子们所不能原谅的是:父母错了,孩子们也看出来了,可是做父母的还不肯承认。
    维多利业时代的父母认为,他们可以靠无理的权威气派来维护自己的尊严,实际上那是根本不行的。孩子们只不过被吓得不敢让父母知道自己的想法罢了。虽然现在我们倾向于走向另一个极端,但总地来看,孩子和家长双方态度都比较端正。遇事采取面对现实的态度总是比较明智和稳妥的,尽管会有暂时的痛苦。

    【新概念四 Lesson 36】 The cost of government 政府的开支
    If a nation is essentially disunited, it is left to the government to hold it together. This increases the expense of government, and reduces correspondingly the amount of economic resources that could be used for developing the country. And it should not be forgotten how small those resources are in a poor and backward country. Where the cost of government is high, resources for development are correspondingly low.
    This may be illustrated by comparing the position of a nation with that of a private business enterprise. An enterprise has to incur certain costs and expenses in order to stay in business. For our purposes, we are concerned only with one kind of cost---the cost of managing and administering the business. Such administrative overheads in a business are analogous to the cost of government in a nation. The administrative overheads of a business are low to the extent that everyone working in the business can be trusted to behave in a way that best promotes the interests of the firm. If they can each be trusted to take such responsibilities, and to exercise such initiative as falls within their sphere, then administrative overhead will be low. It will be low because it will be necessary to have only one man looking after each job, without having another man to check upon what he is doing, keep him in line, and report on him to someone else. But if no one can be trusted to act in a loyal and responsible manner towards his job, then the business will require armies of administrators, checkers, and foremen, and administrative overheads will rise correspondingly. As administrative overhead rises, so the earnings of the business, after meeting the expense of administration, will fall; and the business will have less money to distribute as dividends or invest directly in its future progress and development.
    It is precisely the same with a nation. To the extent that the people can be relied upon to behave in a loyal and responsible manner, the government does not require armies of police and civil servants to keep them in order. But if a nation is disunited, the government cannot be sure that the actions of the people will be in the interests of the nation; and it will have to watch, check, and control the people accordingly. A disunited nation therefore has to incur unduly high costs of government.
    如果一个国家实际上处于分裂状态,使之联合起来就是政府的事了。这样一来就增加了政府的开支,从而相应地减少了可以用来发展国家的那部分经济资源。不应忘记,在一个贫穷落后的国家里,那部分财力是很有限的。凡是政府管理费用高的地方,用于发展国家经济的资金就会相应地减少。
    把国家的状况同私人企业的状况加以比较,就可以看清这个问题。一个企业为了继续经营,不得不支出一定的费用和开销。就我们的目的而言,我们只关心一种费用—企业行政管理费。一家企业的这种行政管理开支类似于一个国家的政府管理所用的开支。如果企业中的每个人都在真诚地为提高企业利润而工作,那么企业的管理费用就会降低到相应的程度。如果企业的每个人都信得过,人人都认真负责,在各自的工作范围内发挥主动性,行政管理费用就会降低。行政管理费用降低的原因是:每项工作只需一个人去完成,用不着另外再有一个人检查他的工作,督促他遵守章程,或向有关人士汇报他的工作。但是,如果企业中谁也不可信赖会对工作尽忠守职,那么企业就会需要大批的管理人员、检查人员和带班人员,管理费用就会相应地增加。管理费用增加了,那么在扣除管理费用后,企业的收入就降低了。因而用于分红的金额或直接用于将来开拓和发展的投资就相应地减少了。
    一个国家的情况也完全相同。如果人民忠于职守,举止规矩,能受到政府的信赖,那么政府就不需要大批的警察和文职人员去促使人民遵纪守法。但是,如果一个国家处于分裂状态,政府不能相信人民的行动有利于国家,那么政府就不得不对人民进行监督、检查和控制。因此,一个处于分裂状态的国家必然要支付过高的行政管理费用。

    【新概念四 Lesson 37】 The process of ageing 衰老过程
    At the age of twelve years, the human body is at its most vigorous. It has yet to reach its full size and strength, and its owner his or her full intelligence; but at this age the likelihood of death is least. Earlier, we were infants and young children, and consequently more vulnerable; later, we shall undergo a progressive loss of our vigour and resistance which, though imperceptible at first, will finally become so steep that we can live no longer, however well we look after ourselves, and however well society, and our doctors, look after us. This decline in vigour with the passing of time is called ageing. It is one of the most unpleasant discoveries which we all make that we must decline in this way, that if we escape wars, accidents and diseases we shall eventually ‘die of old age’, and that this happens at a rate which differs little from person to person, so that there are heavy odds in favour of our dying between the ages of sixty-five and eighty. Some of us will die sooner, a few will live longer----on into a ninth or tenth decade. But the chances are against it, and there is a virtual limit on how long we can hope to remain alive, however lucky and robust we are.
    Normal people tend to forget this process unless and until they are reminded of it. We are so familiar with the fact that man ages, that people have for years assumed that the process of losing vigour with time, of becoming more likely to die the older we get, was something self-evident, like the cooling of a hot kettle or the wearing-out of a pair of shoes. They have also assumed that all animals, and probably other organisms such as trees, or even the universe itself, must in the nature of things ‘wear out’. Most animals we commonly observe do in fact age as we do, if given the chance to live long enough; and mechanical systems like a wound watch, or the sun, do in fact run out of energy in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics (whether the whole universe does so is a moot point at present). But these are not analogous to what happens when man ages. A run-down watch is still a watch and can be rewound. An old watch, by contrast, becomes so worn and unreliable that it eventually is not worth mending. But a watch could never repair itself----it does not consist of living parts, only of metal, which wears away by friction. We could, at one time, repair ourselves----well enough, at least, to overcome all but the most instantly fatal illnesses and accidents. Between twelve and eighty years we gradually lose this power; an illness which at twelve would knock us over, at eighty can knock us out, and into our grave. If we could stay as vigorous as we are at twelve, it would take about 700 years for half of us to die, and another 700 for the survivors to be reduced by half again.
    人体在12岁时是生命力最旺盛的时期。虽然在这个时期人的身材、体力和智力还有待发展和完善,但在这个年龄死亡的可能性最小。再早一些,我们是幼儿和小孩子,身体较脆弱;再迟一些,我们就要经历生命力和抵抗力逐步衰退的过程。虽然这个过程起初难以觉察,但最终会急转直下,不管我们怎样精心照料我们自己,不管社会和医生怎样对我们进行精心照顾,我们也无法再活下去了。生命力随时间的流失而衰退叫做衰老。人类发现的最不愉快的一个事实是:人必然会衰老。既使我们能避开战争、意外的事故和各种疾病,我们最终也会“老死”;衰老的速度在人与人之间相差甚微,我们最可能死亡的年龄在65至80岁之间,有些人会死得早一些,少数人寿命会长一些——活到八十几岁或九十几岁,但这种可能性很小。不管我们多么幸运,多么健壮,我们所希望的长寿实际上是有限度的。
    衰老的过程,不经提起,正常人容易忘记;一经提醒,才会记起。我们对人总是要衰老的现象并不陌生,多年来就已认识到。生命力随着时间流失而丧失活力,人随着年龄的增长而接近死亡,这是不言而喻的,就像一壶热水迟早会凉下来,一双鞋渐渐会磨破一样。人们不但认识到所有的动物,大概也认识到所有的有机物,如树木,甚至宇宙本身,从事物的本质上来说都会“磨损掉”。我们通常看到的大多数动物,即使能让它们活得足够长久的话,也会像我们一样衰老的。像上紧发条的手表那样的机械装置,或太阳,也都会消耗完其能量(整个宇宙是否如此,目前尚有争论)。不过,这些衰老的情况同人并不相似。手表停了依然是只手表,还可以重上好发条。然而一只老掉牙的手表,磨损太厉害,老得一点儿也不准了,最终会不值得修理了。但是,手表决不会自行修理,它不是由有生命的部件组成,而是由金属组成,而金属可以随着磨擦而磨损殆尽。而我们人,在一定时间内是可以自行修复的,除了暴病而死或意外事故外,至少足以克服一切一般疾病和事故。在12岁至80岁之间,我们逐渐丧失这种能力。能使我们在12岁时病倒的疾病,到了80岁可能会使我们一蹶不振而进入坟墓。假如我们能保持12岁时的旺盛生命力,那么我们当中的一半人过700年才死去,剩下的一半人再过700年,才会又减少一半。

    【新概念四 Lesson 39】 What every writer wants 作家之所需
    I have known very few writers, but those I have known, and whom I respect, confess at once that they have little idea where they are going when they first set pen to paper. They have a character, perhaps two; they are in that condition of eager discomfort which passes for inspiration; all admit radical changes of destination once the journey has begun; one, to my certain knowledge, spent nine months on a novel about Kashmir, then reset the whole thing in the Scottish Highlands. I never heard of anyone making a ‘skeleton’, as we were taught at school. In the breaking and remaking, in the timing, interweaving, beginning afresh, the writer comes to discern things in his material which were not consciously in his mind when he began. This organic process, often leading to moments of extraordinary self-discovery, is of an indescribable fascination. A blurred image appears; he adds a brushstroke and another, and it is gone; but something was there, and he will not rest till he has captured it. Sometimes the yeast within a writer outlives a book he has written. I have heard of writers who read nothing but their own books; like adolescents they stand before the mirror, and still cannot fathom the exact outline of the vision before them. For the same reason, writers talk interminably about their own books, winkling out hidden meanings, super-imposing new ones, begging response from those around them. Of course a writer doing this is misunderstood: he might as well try to explain a crime or a love affair. He is also, incidentally, an unforgivable bore.
    This temptation to cover the distance between himself and the reader, to study his image in the sight of those who do not know him, can be his undoing: he has begun to write to please.
    A young English writer made the pertinent observation a year or two back that the talent goes into the first draft, and the art into the drafts that follow. For this reason also the writer, like any other artist, has no resting place, no crowd or movement in which he may take comfort, no judgment from outside which can replace the judgment from within. A writer makes order out of the anarchy of his heart; he submits himself to a more ruthless discipline than any critic dreamed of, and when he flirts with fame, he is taking time off from living with himself, from the search for what his world contains at its inmost point.
    我所认识的作家寥寥无几,然而凡是我所认识和尊敬的作家,都立即承认在他们动笔时,不清楚要写什么,怎么写。他们心中有一个或两个角色。他们处于急切不安的状态,而这被当作是灵感。他们无不承认,一旦“旅程”开始,“目的地”常有急剧的变化。据我所知,有位作家花了9个月的时间写了一部有关克什米尔的小说,后来却把整个故事背景换成了苏格兰高地。我从未听说过任何一位作家像我们在学校学的那样,动笔前先列什么提纲。作家在剪裁修改、构思时间、穿插情节、以至从头重写的过程中,会领悟到素材中有很多东西是他刚动笔时所未意识到的。这种有机的加工过程往往达到不寻常自我发现的境界,具有难以言表的构思魅力。一个朦胧的形象出现在作家的脑海里,他左添一笔,右添一笔,形象反而消逝了;可是,好像还有什么东西存在着,不把它捕捉到,作家是不会罢休的。有时,一个作家一本书写完了,但兴奋仍不消散。我听说一些作家,除了自己的书外,别的书一概不读,犹如希腊神话中那位漂亮少年,站在镜前,不能辨认出自身的真面目。由于这个原因,作家喋喋不休地谈论自己的书,挖掘其隐晦的含义,增添新的含义,询问周围人的反应。作家如此行事当然会被人误解。他还不如给人讲一个犯罪案件或一个恋爱故事。顺便说一句,他也是个不可饶恕的令人厌烦的人。
    这种企图消除自己和读者之间距离的作法,企图用不了解自己的人的观点来研究自己塑造的形象的作法,会导致作家的毁灭,因为他已经开始为取悦他人而写作了。
    一两年前,一位年轻的英国作家发表了中肯的看法。他说,初稿是才华,以后各稿是艺术。也是由于这个原因,作家同任何艺术家一样,找不到可休息的场所,找不到伙伴和活动使自己得到安逸。任何局外人的判断也比不上他自己内心的正确判断。一旦作家从内心的紊乱中理出头绪,就应按任何评论家想像不到的无情规范约束自己去写作;当他沽名钓誉时,他就脱离了自我生活,脱离了对自己灵魂最深处世界的探索。

  • Siren蛋

    Siren蛋 (如何) 2016-11-24 11:15:57

    【新概念四 Lesson 44】 Patterns of culture 文化的模式
    Custom has not commonly been regarded as a subject of any great moment. The inner workings of our own brains we feel to be uniquely worthy of investigation, but custom, we have a way of thinking, is behavior at its most commonplace. As a matter of fact, it is the other way around. Traditional custom, taken the world over, is a mass of detailed behavior more astonishing than what any one person can ever evolve in individual actions, no matter how aberrant. Yet that is a rather trivial aspect of the matter. The fact of first-rate importance is the predominant role that custom plays in experience and in belief, and the very great varieties it may manifest.
    No man ever looks at the world with pristine eyes. He sees it edited by a definite set of customs and institutions and ways of thinking. Even in his philosophical probings he cannot go behind these stereotypes; his very concepts of the true and the false will still have reference to his particular traditional customs. John Dewey has said in all seriousness that the part played by custom in shaping the behavior of the individual, as against any way in which he can affect traditional custom, is as the proportion of the total vocabulary of his mother tongue against those words of his own baby talk that are taken up into the vernacular of his family. When one seriously studies the social orders that have had the opportunity to develop autonomously, the figure becomes no more than an exact and matter-of-fact observation. The life history of the individual is first and foremost an accommodation to the patterns and standards traditionally handed down in his community. From the moment of his birth, the customs into which he is born shape his experience and behavior. By the time he can talk, he is the little creature of his culture, and by the time he is grown and able to take part in its activities, its habits are his habits, its beliefs his beliefs, its impossibilities his impossibilities. Every child that is born into his group will share them with him, and no child born into one on the opposite side of the globe can ever achieve the thousandth part. There is no social problem it is more incumbent upon us to understand than this of the role of custom. Until we are intelligent as to its laws and varieties, the main complicating facts of human life must remain unintelligible.
    The study of custom can be profitable only after certain preliminary propositions have been accepted, and some of these propositions have been violently opposed. In the first place, any scientific study requires that there be no preferential weighting of one or another of the items in the series it selects for its consideration. In all the less controversial fields, like the study of cacti or termites or the nature of nebulae, the necessary method of study is to group the relevant material and to take note of all possible variant forms and conditions. In this way, we have learned all that we know of the laws of astronomy, or of the habits of the social insects, let us say. It is only in the study of man himself that the major social sciences have substituted the study of one local variation, that of Western civilization.
    Anthropology was by definition impossible, as long as these distinctions between ourselves and the primitive, ourselves and the barbarian, ourselves and the pagan, held sway over people's minds. It was necessary first to arrive at that degree of sophistication where we no longer set our own belief against our neighbor’s superstition. It was necessary to recognize that these institutions which are based on the same premises, let us say the supernatural, must be considered together, our own among the rest.
    风俗一般未被认为是什么重要的课题。我们觉得,只有我们大脑内部的活动情况才值得研究,至于风俗呢,只是些司空见惯的行为而已。事实上,情况正好相反。从世界范围来看,传统风俗是由许多细节性的习惯行为组成,它比任何个人养成的行为都更加引人注目,不管个人行为多么异常。这只是问题的一个次要的侧面。最重要的是,风俗在实践中和信仰上所起的举足轻重的作用,以及它所表现出来的极其丰富多采的形式。
    没有一个人是用纯洁而无偏见的眼光看待世界。人们所看到的是一个受特定的风俗习惯、制度和思想方式剪辑过的世界。甚至在哲学领域的探索中,人们也无法超越这些定型的框框。人们关于真与伪的概念依然和特定的传统风俗有关。约翰·杜威曾经非常严肃地指出:风俗在形成个人行为方面所起的作用和一个人对风俗的任何影响相比,就好像他本国语言的总词汇量和自己咿呀学语时他家庭所接纳的他的词汇量之比。当一个人认真地研究自发形成的社会秩序时,杜威的比喻就是他实事求是观察得来的形象化的说法。个人的生活史首先就是适应他的社团世代相传形成的生活方式和准则。从他呱呱坠地的时刻起,他所生于其中的风俗就开始塑造他的经历和行为规范。到他会说话时,他就是传统文化塑造的一个小孩子了;等他长大了,能做各种事了,他的社团的习惯就是他的习惯,他的社团的信仰就是他的信仰,他的社团不能做的事就是他不能做的事。每一个和他诞生在同一个社团中的孩子和他一样具有相同的风俗;而在地球的另一边,诞生在另一个社团的孩子与他就很少有相同的风俗。没有任何一个社会问题比得上风俗的作用问题更要求我们对它理解。直到我们理解了风俗的规律性和多样性,我们才能明白人类生活中主要的复杂现象。
    只有在某些基本的主张被接受下来、同时有些主张被激烈反对时,对风俗的研究才是全面的,才会有收获。首先,任何科学研究都要求人们对可供考虑的诸多因素不能厚此薄彼,偏向某一方面。在一切争议较小的领域里,如对仙人掌、白蚁或星云性质的研究,应采取的研究方法是,把有关各方面的材料汇集起来,同时注意任何可能出现的异常情况和条件。例如,用这种方法,我们完全掌握了天文学的规律和昆虫群居的习性。只是在对人类自身的研究中,各主要的社会学科才用对一个局部地区各种情况的研究(如对西方文明的研究)来代替对全人类的研究。只要我们同原始人,我们同野蛮人,我们同异教徒之间存在的区别在人的思想中占主导地位,那么人类学按其定义来说就无法存在。我们首先需要达到这样一种成熟的程度:不用自己的信仰去反对我们邻居的迷信。必须认识到,这些建立在相同前提基础上的风俗,暂且可以说是超自然的东西,必须放在一起加以考虑,我们自己的风俗和其他民族的风俗都在其中。

    【新概念四 Lesson 46】 Hobbies业余爱好
    A gifted American psychologist has said, ‘Worry is a spasm of the emotion; the mind catches hold of something and will not let it go.’ It is useless to argue with the mind in this condition. The stronger the will, the more futile the task. One can only gently insinuate something else into its convulsive grasp. And if this something else is rightly chosen, if it is really attended by the illumination of another field of interest, gradually, and often quite swiftly, the old undue grip relaxes and the process of recuperation and repair begins.
    The cultivation of a hobby and new forms of interest is therefore a policy of the first importance to a public man. But this is not a business that can be undertaken in a day or swiftly improvised by a mere command of the will. The growth of alternative mental interests is a long process. The seeds must be carefully chosen; they must fall on good ground; they must be sedulously tended, if the vivifying fruits are to be at hand when needed.
    To be really happy and really safe, one ought to have at least two or three hobbies, and they must all be real. It is no use starting late in life to say: ‘I will take an interest in this or that.’ Such an attempt only aggravates the strain of mental effort. A man may acquire great knowledge of topics unconnected with his daily work, and yet get hardly any benefit or relief. It is no use doing what you like; you have got to like what you do. Broadly speaking, human beings may be divided into three classes: those who are toiled to death, those who are worried to death, and those who are bored to death. It is no use offering the manual laborer, tired out with a hard week's sweat and effort, the chance of playing a game of football or baseball on Saturday afternoon. It is no use inviting the politician or the professional or business man, who has been working or worrying about serious things for six days, to work or worry about trifling things at the weekend.
    As for the unfortunate people who can command everything they want, who can gratify every caprice and lay their hands on almost every object of desire----for them a new pleasure, a new excitement is only an additional satiation. In vain they rush frantically round from place to place, trying to escape from avenging boredom by mere clatter and motion. For them discipline in one form or another is the most hopeful path.
    It may also be said that rational, industrious, useful human beings are divided into two classes: first, those whose work is work and whose pleasure is pleasure; and secondly, those whose work and pleasure are one. Of these the former are the majority. They have their compensations. The long hours in the office or the factory bring with them as their reward, not only the means of sustenance, but a keen appetite for pleasure even in its simplest and most modest forms. But Fortune's favored children belong to the second class.Their life is a natural harmony. For them the working hours are never long enough. Each day is a holiday, and ordinary holidays, when they come, are grudged as enforced interruptions in an absorbing vocation. Yet to both classes, the need of an alternative outlook, of a change of atmosphere, of a diversion of effort, is essential. Indeed, it may well be that those whose work is their pleasure are those who most need the means of banishing it at intervals from their minds.
    一位天才的美国心理学家曾经说过:“烦恼是感情的发作,此时脑子纠缠住了某种东西又不肯松手。”在这种情况下,你和头脑争吵让它松手是无济于事的。这种意志越是强烈,这种尝试越是徒劳。你只能缓和而巧妙地让另一种东西进入痉挛僵持的头脑中。如果选得合适,而且的确受到别的领域的情趣的启迪,那么渐渐地,往往也是很顺利地,原先不适当的紧张就会松弛下来,恢复和修整的过程就会开始。
    因此,对一个从事社会活动的人来说,培养一种业馀爱好和各种新的兴趣是头等重要的作法。但这并非一日之功,也不是单凭意志一蹴而就的事。精神上多种情趣的培养是一个长期的过程。要想在需要的时候可随手摘取充满生机的果实,那就必然从精选良种做起,然后将其植入肥沃的土地,还需要勤勉地护理。
    一个人要想真正感到幸福和平安,至少应有两三种爱好,而且都比较实际。到了晚年才开始说:“我会对这个或那个发生兴趣”,已没有用了。这种愿望只能加剧精神紧张。一个人可能会获得与其日常工作无关的某些课题的渊博知识,而没有从中得到什么实益或宽慰。干你所喜欢的事是没有用的,你得喜欢你所干的事。泛泛地说,人可以分为 3类:劳累至死的人、忧虑至死的人、无聊至死的人。对于流汗出力干了一周苦活的体力劳动者来说,让他们在星期六下午再踢足球或打垒球是不合适的;同样,对于为严肃的公务操劳或烦恼了6天的政界人士、专业技术人员、商人来说,在周末再让他们为琐事而动脑子和忧虑也是无益的。
    至于那些能任意支配一切的“可怜的人”,他们能够恣意妄为,能染指一切追求的目标。对这种人来说,多一种新的乐趣、多一种新的刺激只是增加一分厌腻而已。他们到处狂奔乱跑,企图以闲聊和乱窜来摆脱无聊对他们的报复,但这是徒劳的。对他们来说,用某种形式的纪律约束他们一下才能有希望使他们走上正道。
    也可以这样说,理智的、勤劳的、有用的人可以分为两类:第一类是分清工作是工作,娱乐是娱乐的人;第二类人的工作和娱乐是一回事。这两类人当中,第一类人是大多数,他们能够得到补偿。在办公室或工厂里长时间的工作给他们带来了酬劳,这不仅是谋生的手段,而且还带来了寻找乐趣的强烈欲望。那怕是最简单的、最低等的乐趣。但是,命运之神的宠儿是第二类人,他们的生活是一种自然的和谐,对他们来说,工作时间总不会太长,每天都是假日,而通常的假期到来时,他们却惋惜这假期强制打断了他们埋头从事的工作。然而对这两种人来说,都需要换一换脑子,改变一下气氛,转移一下注意力,这是不可缺少的。说实在的,把工作当作享受的那些人可能最需要每隔一段时间把工作从头脑中撇开。

    【新概念四 Lesson 47】The great escape大逃亡
    Economy is one powerful motive for camping, since after the initial outlay upon equipment, or through hiring it, the total expense can be far less than the cost of hotels. But, contrary to a popular assumption, it is far from being the only one, or even the greatest. The man who manoeuvres carelessly into his twenty pounds' worth of space at one of Europe's myriad permanent sites may find himself bumping a Bentley. More likely, Ford Escort will be hub to hub with Renault or Mercedes, but rarely with bicycles made for two.
    That the equipment of modern camping becomes yearly more sophisticated is an entertaining paradox for the cynic, a brighter promise for the hopeful traveller who has sworn to get away from it all. It also provides---and some student sociologist might care to base his thesis upon the phenomenon----an escape of another kind. The modern traveller is often a man who dislikes the Splendide and the Bellavista(都是旅馆名), not because he cannot afford, or shuns their material comforts, but because he is afraid of them. Affluent he may be, but he is by no means sure what to tip the doorman or the chambermaid. Master in his own house, he has little idea of when to say boo(呸,表不满) to a maitre d`hotel.(总管)对旅馆管事不满.
    From all such fears camping releases him. Granted, a snobbery of camping itself, based upon equipment and techniques, already exists; but it is of a kind that, if he meets it, he can readily understand and deal with. There is no superior ‘they’ in the shape of managements and hotel hierarchies to darken his holiday days.
    To such motives, yet another must be added. The contemporary phenomenon of car worship is to be explained not least by the sense of independence and freedom that ownership entails. To this pleasure camping gives an exquisite refinement.
    From one's own front door to home or foreign hills or sands and back again, everything is to hand. Not only are the means of arriving at the holiday paradise entirely within one's own command and keeping, but the means of escape from holiday hell (if the beach proves too crowded, the local weather too inclement) are there, outside----or, as likely, part of----the tent.
    Idealists have objected to the practice of camping, as to the package tour, that the traveller abroadthereby denies himself the opportunity of getting to know the people of the country visited. Insularity and self-containment, it is argued, go hand in hand. The opinion does not survive experience of a popular Continental camping place. Holiday hotels tend to cater for one nationality of visitors especially, sometimes exclusively. Camping sites, by contrast, are highly cosmopolitan. Granted, a preponderance of Germans is a characteristic that seems common to most Mediterranean sites; but as yet there is no overwhelmingly specialized patronage. Notices forbidding the open-air drying of clothes, or the use of water points for car washing, or those inviting ‘our camping friends’ to a dance or a boat trip are printed not only in French or Italian or Spanish, but also in English, German and Dutch. At meal times the odour of sauerkraut vies with that of garlic. The Frenchman's breakfast coffee competes with the Englishman's bacon and eggs.
    Whether the remarkable growth of organized camping means the eventual death of the more independent kind is hard to say. Municipalities naturally want to secure the campers'site fees and other custom. Police are wary of itinerants who cannot be traced to a recognized camp boundary or to four walls. But most probably it will all depend upon campers themselves: how many heath fires they cause; how much litter they leave; in short, whether or not they wholly alienate landowners and those who live in the countryside. Only good scouting is likely to preserve the freedoms so dear to the heart of the eternal Boy Scout.(童子军)
    图省钱是露营的一个主要动机,因为除了开始时购置或是租借一套露营装备外,总费用算起来要比住旅馆开支少得多。但是,和一般的看法相反,这决非是仅有的,甚至不是最主要的动机。如果一位游客漫不经心地驾车驶入欧洲无数常年营地之一,花20镑租用一个空位,那么他可能会碰见一辆本特利汽车,更可能会望见一辆福特·康索尔和一辆雷诺或一辆梅塞迪斯并排停放着,不过双人自行车则不容易看到。
    现代露营装备一年比一年讲究,这对那些厌世嫉俗者来说是一件有趣的自相矛盾的事情。而对于发誓用露营来摆脱烦恼的人来说,却带来了更光明的前景。学社会学的大学生来露营是另一种形式的摆脱现实,他们的目的很可能是根据观察到的露营现象去写论文。现代露营旅游的人往往讨厌住“斯普兰迪德”和“贝拉维斯塔”这样的大酒店,这并不是因为他们付不起钱,也不是为了躲避物质享受,而是因为他们害怕酒店。他们可能很富有,但给看门人和房间女服务员多少小费,心中却根本没有数;他们在家可能是主人,但不知道什么时候才能对酒店的经理表示不满。
    露营使人们免除了这些忧虑。诚然,露营地本身也存在以露营装备和方式取人的势利现象,但如果有这种情况,露营者也容易理解,知道如何对付,但在露营地里根本不会有管人的“人上人”和酒店里的等级制度来使露营者的假日过得阴郁低沉。
    除了以上动机外,还应再加上一个。当前崇拜汽车现象可以用与所有权相伴的独立和自由意识来解释。因此开车去露营会给这种快乐意识增加一种优雅意境。
    从自己的家门出发到国内国外的山区或沙滩上露营然后返回,一切都很便利。完全在自己掌握之中的私人汽车不仅是到达假日天堂的工具,而且也是逃离假日地狱(如海滩太挤,当地天气恶劣)的方便工具,因为汽车就停在帐篷外面,或者汽车本身可能就是露营帐篷的一个组成部分。
    理想主义者像反对旅行社安排一切的一揽子旅游一样反对露营的作法,说这种封闭的作法使到国外旅游者失去了了解所去国家人民的机会。他们争论说,心胸狭窄和自我封闭是并存的。但这种说法在受人欢迎的欧洲露营场地是站不住脚的。假日旅馆有只接待来自一个国家的旅游者的倾向,有时会达到排他的程度。而露营驻地则相反,是高度世界性的。在大多数地中海露营地里,德国人占优势似乎是个普遍现象,确实如此,但并没有特别的优待。禁止露天晒衣服、禁止用水龙头冲洗汽车的布告和邀请露营朋友参加舞会、乘船观光的招贴不仅印成法语、意大利语、西班牙语,而且也印成英语、德语、荷兰语。用饭的时候,德国泡菜味和大蒜味争相散发,法国人的早点咖啡和英国人的咸肉煎蛋竞相比美。
    有组织的露营活动的明显发展是否意味着较独立的自我封闭式露营的最终消失,还很难说。市政当局当然希望获得露营者的场地费和其他光临的好处,警察则对那些查不出有固定营地或住处的游荡者保持警惕。但最重要的或许是露营者自己,即他们引起了多少场野火,留下了多少垃圾。总之,他们是否弄得土地的主人和乡间的居民同他们反目。只有优良的童子军活动才能保持不朽的童子军所衷心热爱的各项自由。

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