约瑟夫斯时期的犹太人不相信鬼是“恶人的魂魄”，以至于他在写作中要专门给希腊罗马读者澄清 (Bohak 2008: 92)：
In his description of how the root helps fight demons, Josephus feels obliged to provide his readers with a definition of the “so-called demons” (ta kaloumena daimonia), for fear lest his non-Jewish audience may not know what he is talking about.  And the explanation itself also is interesting, since he ignores the claim that the demons were the bastard offspring of the Fallen Angels and the daughters of men, and instead describes them as the ghosts of evil people (what in later Jewish parlance would be called a dybbuk), perhaps because this would make more sense to a non-Jewish audience, well aware of the existence of nefarious ghosts. 
 And cf., for a somewhat different example, Philo, Somn. 1.141, who explains that what the Greek philosophers call daimones, the Torah calls “angels.”
 For a non-Jewish parallel, see, e.g., Pausanias 6.6.6, on the δαίμων of a stoned rapist. For ghost possessions in later Jewish magic, see Nigal 1994 and Chajes 2003.
当时的犹太人相信魔鬼是堕落天使跟人类后代交媾的产物，这一点有很多文献支持，比如 死海古卷 11Q11. 这一传统在拉比犹太教时期已经有所改变。
Bohak (2008: 134-135) 指出，截然不同于同时代的其他民族，第二圣殿时期的犹太人不认为人可以通过跟魔鬼交易的方式咒诅、请求魔鬼伤害自己的仇敌；相反，犹太人中通行的做法是直接诅咒，或者呼求上帝降罚。所以，当时的人如果被鬼魔侵扰，也不会怀疑到巫师头上。
拉比文献对于“巫术是否能够影响到神的主权的发挥”有争议。三种观点：1. 不能影响，更没有影响神的选民的能力；2. 能影响，使天意不能成；3. 认为交鬼会使得神的同在减少，这本质上是神对交鬼行为的惩罚 (Kern-Ulmer 1996: 294-296). 这些不同的观点需要回到原文来看作者的具体表述：
One response made by the rabbis in respect to these external concepts was to deny their potency, as is stated in the expression אין מזל לישראל (bShab 156a) which means that astrology does not affect Jews. This is to be understood as a rabbinic statement against the influential Chaldean astral religion. For the rabbis magic represents the pagan world under the influence of fate. In contrast, rabbinic Judaism is premised upon the belief that fate does not control events, rather God is in total control of the universe as is also evidenced in the magical use of the biblical יה צבאות (Lord of hosts). According to the rabbis, magic was impossible to be reconciled with an all-powerful God, as suggested by Urbach.
Nevertheless, the above position was not always maintained by the rabbis. A passage in the Talmud states clearly that magicians were thought to negate the divine agencies, familia. This passage also contends that magic interfered with the heavenly decrees and killed people who were decreed to live. This notion of magicians as having power within the divine world and its inhabitants is reflected in the following passage: "R. Yohanan said: Why are the (magicians) called כשפים (kashafim)? Because they lessen the power of the divine agencies.” (bSan 67b)
Immediately following this passage, in a comment on Dt. 4:35 there is none else besides him, R. Hanina is quoted to say: “Even by sorcery” (bSan 67b). This comment means that not even magic can interfere with God’s power.
However, in rabbinic texts God is not portrayed as being oblivious to magic. Among the religious consequences o f sorcery there was the notion that an increase in magical practice was responsible for the disappearance of God’s Presence. Since God was angry about sorcery he punished the world by retreating from it as is set forth in the following text:
When sorcerers multiplied, fierce anger came into the world and the shekhinah (God’s Presence) left.
■ Bohak, G., 2008. Ancient Jewish magic: a history. Cambridge University Press.
■ Kern-Ulmer, B., 1996. The depiction of magic in rabbinic texts: The rabbinic and the Greek concept of magic. Journal for the study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman period, 27(3), pp.289-303.
■ Eshel, E., 1999. Demonology in Palestine during the Second Temple Period. PhD diss., Hebrew University.
■ E. Eshel and D.C. Harlow, "Demons and Exorcism", in J.J. Collins and D.C. Harlow (eds.), The Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism. Grand Rapids 2010, pp. 531-533.
■ 胡新生, 1998. 中国古代巫术. 山东人民出版社.
■ 小组话题：《古代犹太赶鬼术 (400 B.C.~100 A.D.)》 https://www.douban.com/group/topic/87327347/
■ 小组话题：《查经：诸般交鬼巫术》 https://www.douban.com/group/topic/92804901/