圣经的影响impact of Bible

Menucha

来自: Menucha(מנוחה) 2008-10-10 22:30:30

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  • Menucha

    Menucha (מנוחה) 2008-10-11 01:36:19

    新教和清教徒
        
    Despite its best efforts to limit the common person's access to the Bible, in the late Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church found itself fighting a losing battle.
        
    Most of us know about the Protestant Reformation in early 16th century, but efforts to spread "the Word" actually began many centuries earlier.
      
    很多人知道16世纪初的新教改革,但是传播神的话的努力要早几个世纪。
        
    Already by the 14th century disgust with the decadence and corruption of the Church began to create a grass-roots movement of rebellion. One of the earliest acts of defiance was an attempt on the part of several individuals to return the Christian world to its pure roots by re-introducing the Bible to the common man.
      
    14世纪随着教会的腐败,教会最底层开始反叛运动。最早的挑衅就是几个人想把圣经重新推给大众。
       
    In both northern Europe and England illegal copies of the Bible were printed and distributed in the local vernacular. One such version, produced in England in the late 14th century by Oxford theologian, John Wycliffe, had this in its preface:
      
    北欧和英格兰开始有非法印刷和发行的本国语圣经。英格兰14世纪晚期由牛津神学家John Wycliffe出版的圣经的前言如下:
       
    The Bible is for the government of the people, by the people and for the people. (1)
      
    圣经是民有,民治,民享的。
        
    The people responsible for these "illegal" translations were persecuted and a few of them, such as Jan Hus of Bohemia, were put to death for heresy.
      
    非法圣经的负责人受到迫害,其中少数人如Jan Hus被处死。
        
    New technology was also to play a major role in the in the spread of the Bible. In 1453, in Guttenberg, Germany, the printing press was invented. Before the advent of this invention every book was hand copied, often by monks. This made books both rare and expensive. The printing press could not only produce books at a much faster rate, but it also dramatically lowered the cost of each book. It's no accident that the first book printed in Guttenberg was the Bible. The translation of the Bible into local languages and its mass-production via the printing press led to an explosion in both its popularity and impact.
      
    新技术在圣经传播中起到很大作用。1453年德国发明印刷机。降低了书的成本。制作非常简单。德国印刷厂生产的第一本书就是圣经不是偶然。圣经翻译成本国语言以及机械化生产导致圣经的传播和影响。
        
    The 16th century saw tremendous religious changes in Europe: Martin Luther founded a new Christian denomination called Protestantism. The focus of this new movement was primarily to protest against the material excesses of the Catholic Church and re-infuse Christianity with its Biblical spirit.
      
    16世纪宗教发生巨大改革。欧洲的马丁路德成立了新的基督教派别叫抗罗宗(新教)。焦点最初是反抗天主教的物质过量以及将圣经精神加入基督教。
        
    In 1538 Henry VIII also broke away from Catholicism and founded The Church of England. He issued a proclamation that a copy of the Bible be placed in every Church in England and public reading of the Bible became a regular feature of church worship.
      
    1538,亨利8世从天主教分离。成立英格兰教会。发表声明每家英格兰教会有一本圣经,公开读经成为教会礼拜常规。
        
    Many other countries followed suit, abandoned the Catholic Church, and became Protestant.
      
    其他国家竞相尾随。
        
    Protestant theologians, realizing that the true religious and ethical spirit of Christianity came from within the Bible (both the Old and New Testaments) put strong emphasis on the individual's right and responsibility to go directly to the Bible and use it as the moral guidebook.
      
    新教承认新旧约的权威,强调个人的权力和责任直接读经,并以之作为指引。
        
    As Martin Luther wrote in a letter to Pope Leo: "... I cannot allow myself to be bound by fixed rules for the interpretation of the Word of God, for the Word, which is the source of all freedom, must itself be free." (2)
      
    马丁路德给教皇Leo的信说:
    我不能被解经的禁锢束缚。神的话是所有自由的源泉。圣经自身必须被释放获得自由。
        
    In countries allied with Protestantism, translation and mass distribution of the Bible became a regular feature. The decline in the power of the Church, the growth of Protestantism with its strong emphasis on the Bible and the development of the printing press all combined together to blast the Bible into a position of unprecedented religious and political influence in Europe.
        
    这一切导致了欧洲史无前例的宗教政治影响。
      
    One of the best examples of the power of the Bible in modern political development is the 17th century English Civil War known as the Puritan Revolution. The Puritans, who were Protestant fundamentalists, were also devout believers in the Bible. They felt that the Church of England was not in keeping with the true religious spirit which they believed included the right of everyone to interpret God's law. They also rejected the absolutism of the king, then Charles I. The Puritans felt that Parliament, and not the King, should have the final say and that the moral guidance for all legal decision should come from the Bible which they considered to be the highest authority in all matters.
      
    17世纪英国内战也叫清教徒革命。反对国王的绝对主义,要求议会高于国王。圣经则是一切道德法律的最后准则。
        
    The climax of the revolution was the execution of Charles I -- a watershed in European history that shook the foundations of European nobility. For the first time in the history of Europe, a monarch was not only dethroned by the masses, but also executed. By the end of the Revolution, Parliament ruled supreme under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell.
      
    查理一世被处死。动摇了欧洲贵族阶层。欧洲历史首次君主被人民处死。议会制形成。
        
    Throughout all these events the Bible played an absolutely central role. The Puritans were obsessed with the book. They came to identify their political struggle against Charles with that of the ancient Hebrews against Pharaoh or the King of Babylon. Because they identified so strongly with ancient Israel, they chose overwhelmingly to identify with the Old Testament, which of course is the Hebrew Bible. They read it everywhere, studied Hebrew and even gave their children Hebrew names. Cromwell's "New Model Army" marched into battle singing Psalms and carrying banners embroidered with the Lion of Judea; their battle cry was "The Lord God of Hosts."
      
    清教徒自比当年希伯来人反抗法老和巴比伦王。特别强调旧约。学习西伯莱文,小孩取西伯莱名,克伦威尔的军队高唱诗篇进入战役,打的旗帜是犹大狮子,打仗是奉“万军耶和华”的名。
        
    One has merely to read the writings of the great Puritan poet, John Milton (1608-1674) to appreciate the all-pervasive influence of the Hebrew Bible on the Puritan world view:
        
    清教徒诗人约翰米儿顿是这样描写旧约的影响:
      
    There is no song comparable to the song of Zion; no oration equal to those of the prophets; and no politics like those which scripture teach. (3)
      
    没有歌比得上锡安的歌,没有讲说超过先知,没有政治超过圣经的教诲。

      
    An interesting side benefit of the Puritan obsession with the Bible was the rapid rise in the rate of literacy. Throughout human history literacy was a luxury out of most peoples reach and often deliberately withheld by the ruling class. But since the Puritans believed that people should use the Bible to connect directly to God, then that meant that those people had to be literate. So the need to have direct access to the Bible led to a significant rise in the literacy rates in England and other Protestant states.
      
    英格兰和其他新教国家的识字率大大上升。
        
    Although Puritan domination of England did not survive the death of Cromwell in 1658, it did leave a lasting legacy of political reform not only to England, but to the rest of Europe as well. Puritans and other Protestant splinter sects would also play a crucial role in the political and religious formation of America which is the next chapter of our story.
        
    克伦威尔死后,清教徒和其他新教同样在美国的政治宗教中起到关键作用。下回分解。
      
    SOURCES:引用:
        
    Sivan, Gabriel, "The Bible and Civilization", Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, 1973, p. 174.
        
    Dillenberger John and Welch, Claude, "Protestant Christianity: Interpreted Through Its Development", New York: Charles Scribner and Sons, 1954, p. 68.
    Sivan, p. 70.

  • 大南瓜

    大南瓜 (常乐我净) 2008-10-11 01:38:47

    但很少有人探索这个历史过程。
    从亚伯拉罕到摩西

  • Menucha

    Menucha (מנוחה) 2008-10-11 16:43:44

    Now that we have seen the powerful religious, moral and political influence that the Bible had on Europe, it's time to travel across the Atlantic to America for the fascinating conclusion to our story.

    Just as the United States occupies a singular position in history as the only country founded as a democracy, it also has a unique status as the country most-influenced by the Bible in history.

    美国是一个民主国家,也是受圣经影响最深的国家。

    Many of the earliest colonists who settled on the north-east coast of America in early 17th century were Protestant refugees escaping religious persecutions in Europe. The first were the so-called "Pilgrims" -- Protestant-British settlers who founded the colony on Plymouth Rock in New England. They were followed by many thousands who arrived in the New World in subsequent years.

    17世纪早期到北美东北海岸殖民的欧洲人都是逃离迫害的新教徒。最早的是英国在新英格兰的新教徒。在其后,数千人移民北美。

    Well into the 18th century, America continued to be not only the land of opportunity for many people seeking a better life, but also the land of religious tolerance.

    18世纪北美不仅仅意味着新机会更好谋生,也意味着宗教宽容。

    The majority of the earliest settlers were Puritans from England. Like their cousins back home, these American Puritans strongly identified with both the historical traditions and customs of the ancient Hebrews of the Old Testament. They viewed their emigration from England as a virtual re-enactment of the Jewish exodus from Egypt: England was Egypt, the king was Pharaoh, the Atlantic Ocean their Red Sea, America was the Land of Israel, and the Indians were the ancient Canaanites. They were the new Israelites, entering into a new covenant with God in a new Promised Land. (1)

    最早的大多数是清教徒。像他们在欧洲的兄弟们一样,这些美国清教徒也同样强调希伯来圣经的重要。他们比喻到美国如同出埃及。欧洲的国王就是法老,大西洋就是红海,美国就是以色列地。他们是新以色列人,在新的应许之地和神进入一个新的约。

    Most of the early legislation of the colonies of New England was determined by Scripture.

    大多数早期新英格兰的殖民者的法律都是由圣经决定的。

    These settlers found themselves in a New World which had no existing laws or government. Their first task, therefore, was to create a legal framework for their communities and the first place they looked for guidance was the Hebrew Bible. Thus most of the early legislation of the colonies of New England was determined by Scripture. The most extreme example was the Connecticut Code of 1650 which created a form of fundamentalist government based almost entirely on Mosaic law using numerous citations from the Bible. The same held true for the code of New Haven and many other colonies. (2)

    新世界的移民者一开始没有法律也没有政府。最早的工作就是制造法律的框架,最开始的工作就是查考希伯来圣经。1650年法律创造了基要派政府几乎是完全翻版摩西的律法。用圣经解释摩西律法。其他殖民州也如此。

    At the first assembly of New Haven in 1639, John Davenport clearly declared the primacy of the Bible as the legal and moral foundation of the colony:

    1639年new haven会议john davenport清楚声明圣经的第一权威是新世界法律和道德的基础:

    "Scriptures do hold forth a perfect rule for the direction and government of all men in all duties which they are to perform to God and men as well as in the government of families and commonwealth as in matters of the church ... the Word of God shall be the only rule to be attended unto in organizing the affairs of government in this plantation." (3)

    “圣经确实为政府的方向提供了完美的计划。指导人和神关系,也指导政府,家庭,教会等各方面。上帝的话应该是我们在这片土地上组织政府事务的唯一准则。”

    Puritan obsession with the Bible led them to try and incorporate many aspects of the Jewish commandments into their lifestyle based on their literal interpretation of Hebraic laws (which did not always agree with the Jewish interpretation nor with Jewish practice). One of the most significant was the concept of the Sabbath as a day of rest and meditation. Puritan Sabbath observance began at sundown and no work of any kind, even household chores, was allowed for the next 24-hours. Sabbath observance was strictly monitored by local officials.

    清教徒对圣经的执着使他们用犹太律法来解释他们的生活方式(不是同意犹太的解释和做法)。其中之一就是安息日的概念,应该是休息和默念。清教徒的安息日是从日落开始,不做任何工作,包括家务,长24小时。地方官员严格规定要守安息日。

    Thanksgiving which has evolved into a national day of feasting and celebration was initially conceived by the Pilgrims, in 1621, as day similar to the Jewish Day of Atonement -- Yom Kippur, a day of fasting, introspection and prayer.

    感恩节也称为国家法定假日(1621),和犹太的赎罪日非常相似。要禁食,反省,祷告。

    This Puritan focus on the Bible and individual responsibility had an even more significant impact on literacy in the American colonies than in England. All towns in New England with a minimum of 50 households were required by law to establish schools and appoint teachers. Universities were established and many printing presses were imported. This subject we shall examine in the next installment.

    清教徒强调个人责任,比在欧洲更强调识字的重要性。最少50个家庭按法律规定必须办学校,委派老师。大学成立了。印刷机进口了。

    关于这一部分分贴再贴。

    SOURCES 引用:

    Sivan, Gabriel, The Bible and Civilization, Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, 1973, p. 236.
    Katsh, Abraham I., The Biblical Heritage of American Democracy, New York: Ktav Publishing House, Inc., 1977, Chapter 3 & 5.
    Katsh, p. 97.

  • Menucha

    Menucha (מנוחה) 2008-10-11 23:32:46

    The influence of the Bible was not just limited to the Puritan colonies of New England. During this early period of American history numerous colleges and universities were established under the auspices of various Protestant sects: Harvard, Yale, William and Mary, Rutgers, Princeton, Brown, Kings College (Columbia), Johns Hopkins, Dartmouth, etc.

    圣经的影响不限於清教徒。美国初期历史无数大学是由不同的基督教派别建立的。哈佛,耶鲁,William and Mary, Rutgers, Princeton, Brown, Kings College (Columbia), Johns Hopkins, Dartmouth, 等。

    A major function of many of these institutions was to graduate ministers and pastors to teach the Bible to the Native Americans and convert them to Christianity. Thus the Bible played a central role in the curriculum of all of these institutions of higher learning with both Hebrew and Bible studies required courses.

    这些学府的主要任务之一就是培养合格的牧师,教导印第安人信仰基督教。希伯来文和圣经是所有大学的最中心课程。

    Many of these colleges adopted some Hebrew word or phrase as part of their official emblem or seal, and so popular was the Hebrew Language in the 18th century that several students at Yale delivered their commencement orations in Hebrew.

    很多大学采用了希伯来文词作为其官印或校徽。18世纪希伯来语非常盛行,耶鲁的一些学生的毕业致辞是用希伯来文。

    At the time of the American Revolution, the interest in the knowledge of Hebrew was so widespread as to allow the circulation of the story that "certain members of Congress proposed that the use of English be formally prohibited in the United States, and Hebrew substituted for it." (1)

    美国革命时期,希伯来文也很盛行,国会一些成员建议英语在美国禁止使用,而用希伯来语取而代之。

    Without a doubt the political development of America was also strongly influenced by Jewish ideas communicated through the Bible. Many of the population, including a significant number of the Founding Fathers of America, were products of American universities. The majority of these political leaders were not only well acquainted with the contents of both the New and Old Testaments, but also had a working knowledge of Hebrew. This exposure to the Bible colored not only their religion and ethics, but also their politics.

    毫无疑问美国的政治发展通过圣经受到希伯来思想的强烈影响。很多民众和美国的建国前辈们都是美国大学的毕业生。这些政治领袖不仅熟悉新旧约圣经,也能使用希伯来文。圣经不仅是宗教和伦理,也是他们的政治。

    Just as the Puritans of England and America saw themselves as modern-day Israelites, bound by covenant to God and in search of religious freedom so too did the these Founding Fathers adopt the same Biblical motifs for political reasons -- the struggle of the ancient Israelites against the wicked Pharaoh or the evil king of Babylon came to embody the struggle of the colonist against English tyranny.

    如清教徒视自己为新以色列人,和神是契约关系,寻找宗教自由,这些建国前辈也利用同样的圣经原则作为政治理由。当年以色列人反抗邪恶的法老和邪恶的巴比伦王折射了殖民者和英国苛政的斗争。

    Numerous examples can be found which clearly illustrate to what a significant extent the political struggles of the colonies was identified with the ancient Hebrews:

    The first design for the official seal of the United States recommended by Franklin, Adams and Jefferson in 1776 depicts the Jews crossing the Red Sea. The motto around the seal read: "REBELLION TO TYRANTS IS OBEDIENCE TO GOD."

    富兰克林,亚当和杰弗逊1776提出的第一个美国官印是犹太人过红海。官印的文字是“对苛政的背叛是对神的顺从”。

    The inscription on the Liberty Bell at Independence Hall in Philadelphia is a direct quote from Leviticus 25:10: "Proclaim liberty throughout the land unto all the inhabitants thereof."

    费城独立大厅的自由钟刻着利未25:10
    在 遍 地 给 一 切 的 居 民 宣 告 自 由 。

    Patriotic pamphlets and speeches during the period of the struggle for independence were often infused with Biblical motifs and references to the Bible. Thus Benjamin Rush, in denouncing the Tea Act, wrote: "What shining examples of patriotism do we behold in Joshua, Samuel, Maccabees and all the illustrious princes, captains and prophets among the Jews."

    爱国主义册子和演讲把独立斗争和圣经宗旨相连。本杰明在tea act中宣告:“我们所高举的约书亚,撒母耳,马加比,以及我们所高举的犹太杰出的王子们,首领们,先知们是何等荣耀。”

    While many of the ideas incorporated by the framers of the Declaration of Independence reflect the influence of Enlightenment philosophy, there is no doubt that the concept of an absolute standard of morality based on the authority God is a central pillar of American democracy. Nowhere is this more evident than in the opening sentences of the Declaration of Independence:

    独立宣言大纲的起草反映了启蒙哲学的影响。毫无疑问道德的绝对标准是基于上帝的权威,这是美国民主的中心支柱。独立宣言一开头这样写到:

    "We hold these truths to be self evident that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among them are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."

    我们认为下述真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,造物主赋予他们若干不可让与的权利,其中包括生存权、自由权和追求幸福的权利。

    The language of the Bill of Rights (1789) also echoes themes and ethical concepts from the Bible. And the notion of a "solemn agreement of the people" is a clear reference to the Biblical idea of covenant.

    人权宣言也同样是圣经的伦理的反映(1789)。其中“人民的庄严契约”是清楚指圣经意义的约。

    And so it is that with the birth of American democracy that we have the next milestone in the process of the spread of Jewish ideas in civilization. For the first time in history Jewish ethical ideas were legally enshrined into the laws of a non-Jewish nation.

    美国民主的诞生是犹太思想在文明中的又一个里程碑。历史第一次把犹太的伦理观写进外邦的法律。

    Aside from its early formative influence on American democracy, the Bible continued to play a significant cultural and ethical role in American society throughout the 18th century. Even in the darkest hours of American history the Bible has shone forth as the major inspiration to the American people.

    除了圣经在美国形成中起到关键作用,18世纪圣经一直继续在美国社会的文化和伦理中起到决定性作用。甚至在美国历史上最黑暗的日子里,圣经依然如明灯照耀,带给美国人民最宝贵的启发。

    In 1863, after the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil war (1861-65), President Lincoln gave one of the most stirring speeches in American history, the Gettysburg address. Lincoln concluded his speech with an almost word-for-word repetition of John Wycliffe's 14th century dedication to his English translation of the Bible:

    1863年,美国内战盖茨堡战役,林肯总统发表了美国历史上最激动人心的演讲,就是盖茨堡致辞。林肯逐字逐句重复了14世纪John Wycliffe献身圣经英语翻译的用词:

    "... this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall nor perish from the earth."

    要使这个国家在上帝庇佑之下,得到新生的自由--要使那民有、民治、民享的政府不致从地球上消失。

    Possibly the best testament to the centrality of the Bible in American life was delivered by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in a 1935 radio address:

    圣经是美国人民的生活中心的最好证明是1935年罗斯福总统的电台致辞:

    "We cannot read the history of our rise and development as a nation, without reckoning with the place the Bible has occupied in shaping the advances of the Republic ... where we have been truest and most consistent in obeying its precepts, we have attained the greatest measure of contentment and prosperity." (2)

    “我们如果不承认圣经在形成和发展美利坚合众国中占据的地位,就不能解读我们国家站立和发展的历史。我们已经最真实,最坚持地遵行了圣经的规则。我们已经得到最大程度的满足和繁荣。”

    SOURCES 引用:

    Katsh, Abraham I., The Biblical Heritage of American Democracy, New York: Ktav Publishing House, Inc., 1977, p. 70.

    Sivan, Gabriel, The Bible and Civilization, Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, 1973, p. 178

    FURTHER READING: 进一步阅读:

    Cremin, Lawrence A., American Education: The Colonial Experience 1607-1783, New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1970.

    Innes, Stephen, Creating the Commonwealth: The Economic Culture of Puritan New England, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1995

    Katsh, Abraham I., The Biblical Heritage of American Democracy, New York: Ktav Publishing House, Inc., 1977

    Sivan, Gabriel, The Bible and Civilization, Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, 1973

  • Menucha

    Menucha (מנוחה) 2008-10-14 00:23:25

    亚博拉罕从创11开始;
    创世纪讲到约瑟为止。
    中间夹杂了亚博拉罕的儿子,孙子,重孙子。
    到出埃及是接住约瑟的故事,转向摩西。
    从亚博拉罕到摩西的几个重点就是亚博拉罕,以撒,雅各,约瑟,和摩西。

    再加上亚伦,卡巴拉有说法,还是另发贴好。南瓜眼力厉害。

  • 大南瓜

    大南瓜 (常乐我净) 2008-10-14 00:30:50

    姐姐辛苦了,早点休息奥

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