Graphic Design


来自: 桃小宝(=v=) 组长 2008-06-24 20:38:02

  • 桃小宝

    桃小宝 (=v=) 组长 楼主 2008-06-24 20:41:31

    From Wikipedia The term graphic design can refer to a number of artistic and professional disciplines which focus on visual communication and presentation. Various methods are used to create and combine symbols, images and/or words to create a visual representation of ideas and messages. A graphic designer may utilize typography, visual arts and page layout techniques in varying degrees to produce the final result of the project. Graphic design often refers to both the process (designing) by which the communication is created and the products (designs) which are generated. Common uses of graphic design include magazines, advertisements, product packaging and web design. For example, a product package might include a logo or other artwork, organized text and pure design elements such as shapes and color which unify the piece. Composition is one of the most important features of graphic design especially when utilizing pre-existing materials or using diverse elements. Contents [hide] 1 History of graphic design 1.1 Early 1.2 The Invention of Printing 1.3 The Start of Industrial Design 1.4 Twentieth Century Design 2 Tools 2.1 Computers versus the creative process 3 Types of graphic design 3.1 Page layout 3.2 Printmaking 3.3 Typography 3.4 Web design 4 Occupations 4.1 Production artist 4.2 Art director 4.2.1 Advertising & Marketing 4.2.2 Film 4.2.3 Publishing 5 Practical design applications 6 See also 6.1 Related disciplines 6.2 Related topics 7 Footnotes 8 External links and articles History of graphic design Graphic Design spans the history of humankind from the caves of Lascaux to the dazzling neons of Ginza. In both this lengthy history and in the relatively recent explosion of visual communication in the 20th and 21st centuries, there is sometimes a blurring distinction and over-lapping of advertising art, graphic design and fine art. After all, they share many of the same elements, theories, principles, practices and languages, and sometimes the same benefactor or client. In advertising art the ultimate objective is the sale of goods and services. In graphic design, "the essence is to give order to information, form to ideas, expression and feeling to artifacts that document human experience." Early The paintings in the caves of Lascaux around 14,000 BC and the birth of written language in the third or fourth millennium BC are both significant milestones in the history of graphic design and other fields which hold roots to graphic design. The Book of Kells is an early example of graphic design. It is a lavishly decorated hand-written copy of the Gospels of the Christian Bible created by Celtic monks around 800AD. [edit] The Invention of Printing Main article: History of printing During the Tang dynasty (618–906) bettween the 4th and 7th century A.D. wood blocks were cut to print on textiles and later to reproduce Buddhist texts. A Buddhist scripture printed in 868 is the earliest known printed book. Beginning in the 11th century, longer scrolls and books were produced using movable type printing making books widely available during the Song dyanasty (960–1279).[3] Sometime around 1450, Johann Gutenberg's printing press made books widely available in Europe. The book design of Aldus Manutius developed the book structure which would become the foundation of western publication design. This era of graphic design is called Humanist or Old Style. [4] [edit] The Start of Industrial Design In late 19th century Europe, especially in the United Kingdom, the movement began to separate graphic design from fine art. Piet Mondrian is known as the father of graphic design. He was a fine artist, but his use of grids inspired the modern grid system used today in advertising, print and web layout. [5] In 1849, Henry Cole became on of the major forces in design education in Great Britain, informing the government of the important of design in his Journal of Design and Manufactures. He organized the Great Exhibition as a celebration of modern industrial technology and Victorian design. From 1892 to 1896 William Morris' Kelmscott Press published books that are some of the most significant of the graphic design products of the Arts and Crafts movement, and made a very lucrative business of creating books of great stylistic refinement and selling them to the wealthy for a premium. Morris proved that a market existed for works of graphic design in their own right and helped pioneer the separation of design from production and from fine art. The work of the Kelmscott Press is characterized by its obsession with historical styles. This historicism was, however, important as it amounted to the first significant reaction to the stale state of nineteenth-century graphic design. Morris' work, along with the rest of the Private Press movement, directly influenced Art Nouveau and is indirectly responsible for developments in early twentieth century graphic design in general.[6] Twentieth Century Design The term graphic design was first coined by William Addison Dwiggins, an American book designer in the early 20th century[7] The signage in the London Underground is a classic[citation needed] of the modern era and used a font designed by Edward Johnston in 1916. In the 1920s, Soviet constructivism applied 'intellectual production' in different spheres of production. The movement saw individualistic art as useless in revolutionary Russia and thus moved towards creating objects for utilitarian purposes. They designed buildings, theater sets, posters, fabrics, clothing, furniture, logos, menus, etc.[citation needed] Jan Tschichold codified the principles of modern typography in his 1928 book, New Typography. He later repudiated the philosophy he espoused in this book as being fascistic, but it remained very influential.[citation needed] Tschichold, Bauhaus typographers such as Herbert Bayer and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, and El Lissitzky are the fathers of graphic design[citation needed] as we know it today. They pioneered production techniques and stylistic devices used throughout the twentieth century. The following years saw graphic design in the modern style gain widespread acceptance and application.[8] A booming post-World War II American economy established a greater need for graphic design, mainly advertising and packaging. The emigration of the German Bauhaus school of design to Chicago in 1937 brought a "mass-produced" minimalism to America; sparking a wild fire of "modern" architecture and design. Notable names in mid-century modern design include Adrian Frutiger, designer of the typefaces Univers and Frutiger; Paul Rand, who, from the late 1930s until his death in 1996, took the principles of the Bauhaus and applied them to popular advertising and logo design, helping to create a uniquely American approach to European minimalism while becoming one of the principal pioneers of the subset of graphic design known as corporate identity; and Josef Müller-Brockmann, who designed posters in a severe yet accessible manner typical of the 1950s and 1960s. [edit] Tools Critical, observational, quantitative and analytic thinking are required for design layouts and rendering. If the executor is merely following a sketch, script or instructions (as may be supplied by an art director) they are not usually considered the author. The layout is produced using external traditional or digital image editing tools. Selecting the appropriate tools for each project is critical in how the project will be perceived by its audience. In the mid 1980s, the arrival of desktop publishing and graphic art software applications introduced a generation of designers to computer image manipulation and creation that had previously been manually executed. Computer graphic design enabled designers to instantly see the effects of layout or typographic changes without using any ink, and to simulate the effects of traditional media without requiring a lot of space. However, traditional tools such as pencils or markers are often used to develop ideas even when computers are used for finalization. Computers are generally considered to be an indispensable tool used in the graphic design industry. Computers and software applications are generally seen, by creative professionals, as more effective production tools than traditional methods. However, some designers continue to use manual and traditional tools for production, such as Milton Glaser. New ideas can come by way of experimenting with tools and methods. Some designers explore ideas using pencil and paper to avoid creating within the limits of whatever computer fonts, clipart, stock photos, or rendering filters (e.g. Kai's Power Tools) are available on any particular configuration. Others use many different mark-making tools and resources from computers to sticks and mud as a means of inspiring creativity. One of the key features of graphic design is that it makes a tool out of appropriate image selection in order to convey meaning.[9] [edit] Computers versus the creative process There is some debate whether computers enhance the creative process of graphic design.[10] Rapid production from the computer allows many designers to explore multiple ideas quickly with more detail than what could be achieved by traditional hand-rendering or paste-up on paper, moving the designer through the creative process more quickly.[11] However, being faced with limitless choices does not help isolate the best design solution and can lead to designers endlessly iterating without a clear design outcome. A graphic designer may use sketches to explore multiple or complex ideas quickly[12] without the potential distractions of technical difficulties from software malfunctions or learning the software.[citation needed] Hand rendered comps are often used to get approval of an idea execution before investing time to produce finished visuals on a computer or in paste-up. The same thumbnail sketches or rough drafts on paper may be used to rapidly refine and produce the idea on the computer in a hybrid process. This hybrid process is especially useful in logo design[13] where a software learning curve may detract from a creative thought process. The traditional-design/computer-production hybrid process may be used for freeing ones creativity in page layout or image development as well.[citation needed] Traditional graphic designers may employ computer-savvy production artists to produce their ideas from sketches, without needing to learn the computer skills themselves. However, this practice is less utilized since the advent of desktop publishing and its integration with most graphic design courses. [edit] Types of graphic design A graphic design project may involve the presentation of existing text and imagery, such as with a newspaper story which begins with the journalists and photojournalists. It then becomes the graphic designer's job to organize the page into a reasonable layout and determine if any other graphic elements should be required. In a magazine article or advertisement, often the graphic designer or art director will commission photographers or illustrators to create original pieces just to be incorporated into the design layout. Contemporary design practice has been extended to the modern computer, for example in the use of WYSIWYG user interfaces, often referred to as interactive design, or multimedia design. [edit] Page layout Further information: Page layout Page layout is the part of graphic design that deals in the arrangement and style treatment of elements (content) on a page. Beginning from early illuminated pages in hand-copied books of the Middle Ages and proceeding down to intricate modern magazine and catalog layouts, proper page design has long been a consideration in printed material. With print media, elements usually consist of type (text), images (pictures), and occasionally place-holder graphics for elements that are not printed with ink such as die/laser cutting, foil stamping or blind embossing. [edit] Printmaking Further information: Printmaking Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, which is called a print. Each piece is not a copy but an original since it is not a reproduction of another work of art and is technically known as an impression. Painting or drawing, on the other hand, create a unique original piece of artwork. Prints are created from a single original surface, known technically as a matrix. Common types of matrices include: plates of metal, usually copper or zinc for engraving or etching; stone, used for lithography; blocks of wood for woodcuts, linoleum for linocuts and fabric plates for screen-printing. But there are many other kinds, discussed below. Works printed from a single plate create an edition, in modern times usually each signed and numbered to form a limited edition. Prints may also be published in book form, as artist's books. A single print could be the product of one or multiple techniques. [edit] Typography Further information: Typography Typography is the art, craft and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. Type glyphs (characters) are created and modified using a variety of illustration techniques. The arrangement of type is the selection of typefaces, point size, line length, leading (line spacing) and letter spacing. Typography is performed by typesetters, compositors, typographers, graphic artists, art directors, and clerical workers. Until the Digital Age, typography was a specialized occupation. Digitization opened up typography to new generations of visual designers and lay users. [edit] Web design Further information: web design Graphic designers are often involved in web design. Combining visual communication skills with the interactive communication skills of user interaction and online branding, graphic designers often work with web developers to create both the look and feel of a web site and enhance the online experience of web site visitors. In the job field, many companies look for someone who can do both graphic design and the web application development involved in web design, including programming. There is a great deal of debate in the professional design community about whether this trend is positive, or if graphic designers are being over-tasked with unrelated skills and disciplines. A collaborative web-design team may split the tasks between graphic designers and software engineers. [edit] Occupations Further information: Graphic design occupations [edit] Production artist Further information: Production artist A production artist is a technical and often considered an entry level job position in a creative profession. The job title originated at advertising agencies, assigning what was known as paste-up work (now prepress production) to the position. It's often assumed to be a graphic designer or art director in training position, similar to an apprenticeship. Production artists work closely with the designer and art director to execute the design. What distinguishes "production art" from design is the lack of opportunities to utilize creativity and design training in the work involved. Although the position may be treated as low-skilled labor, the degree of technical knowledge required for some production art work may be comparable to higher skilled engineering, especially with computers. [edit] Art director Further information: Art director The term art director is a blanket title for a variety of similar job functions in advertising, publishing, film and television, the Internet, and video games. [edit] Advertising & Marketing Art directors in advertising aren't necessarily the head of an art department although the title may suggest it. In modern advertising practice, they typically work in tandem with a copywriter. Together, or the art director and copywriter work on a concept for commercials, print advertisements, and any other advertising medium. Individually, the art director is mostly responsible for the visual look and feel of the creative product, and the copywriter has ultimate responsibility for the product's verbal and textual content. Both are responsible for coming up with big, effective and persuasive ideas. [edit] Film An art director, in the hierarchical structure of a film art department, works directly below the production designer, in collaboration with the set decorator, and above the set designer. A large part of their duties include the administrative aspects of the art department. They are responsible for assigning tasks to personnel, keeping track of the art department budget and scheduling, as well as overall quality control. They are often also a liaison to other departments; especially the construction department. In the past, the art director title was used to denote the head of the art department (hence the Academy Award for Best Art Direction). [edit] Publishing Art directors in publishing typically work with the publications editors. Together they work on a concept for sections and pages of a publication. Individually, the art director is mostly responsible for the visual look and feel of the publication, and the editor has ultimate responsibility for the publications verbal and textual content. [edit] Practical design applications From road signs to technical schematics, from interoffice memorandums to reference manuals, graphic design enhances transfer of knowledge. Readability is enhanced by improving the visual presentation of text. Design can also aid in selling a product or idea through effective visual communication. It is applied to products and elements of company identity like logos, colors, and text. Together these are defined as branding. See advertising. Branding has increasingly become important in the range of services offered by many graphic designers, alongside corporate identity and the terms are often used interchangeably. Textbooks are designed to present subjects such as geography, science, and math. These publications have layouts which illustrate theories and diagrams. A common example of graphics in use to educate is diagrams of human anatomy. Graphic design is also applied to layout and formatting of educational material to make the information more accessible and more readily understandable. Graphic design is applied in the entertainment industry in decoration, scenery, and visual story telling. Other examples of design for entertainment purposes include novels, comic books, opening credits and closing credits in film, and programs and props on stage. From scientific journals to news reporting, the presentation of opinion and facts is often improved with graphics and thoughtful compositions of visual information - known as information design. Newspapers, magazines, blogs, television and film documentaries may use graphic design to inform and entertain. With the advent of the web, information designers with experience in interactive tools such as Adobe Flash are increasingly being used to illustrate the background to news stories.

  • 桃小宝

    桃小宝 (=v=) 组长 楼主 2008-06-24 21:07:56

    维基百科 任期平面设计可参阅了大量的艺术和专业学科的重点是视觉传达和介绍。各种方法,用来建立和结合起来,符号,图象和/或换言之,以创造一个可视化的代表的意见和讯息。 1平面设计师可利用印刷术,视觉艺术和页面布局技术,在不同程度上产生的最终结果该项目。平面设计,往往既指的过程中(设计) ,其中沟通是创造和产品(设计) ,其中所产生的。 共同使用的图形设计,包括杂志,广告,产品包装和网站设计。举例来说,产品包装可能包括一个标志或其他艺术品,有组织的文字和纯设计元素,如形状和颜色统一一块。组成是其中一个最重要的特点,平面设计尤其是当利用前现有的材料,或使用不同的元素。 内容[隐藏] 1历史的平面设计 1.1早期 1.2发明的印刷 3月1日开始,工业设计 1.4 20世纪的设计 2工具 2.1计算机银两创作过程 3种平面设计 3.1页面布局 3.2版画 3.3印刷术 3.4网页设计 四职业 4.1生产艺术家 4.2艺术总监 4.2.1广告与营销 4.2.2电影 4.2.3出版 5实际设计应用 6见也 6.1相关学科 6.2相关主题 7注脚 8外部链接和文章 历史的平面设计 平面设计横跨人类历史上从洞穴的lascaux到令人眼花缭乱的neons的银座。双方在这个漫长的历史,以及在比较近期的爆炸,视觉传达,在20和21世纪之交,有有时是模糊的区别和过度研磨的广告艺术,图形设计和美术。毕竟,他们分享了许多相同的元素,理论,原则,做法和语言,有时相同的恩人或客户端。在广告艺术的最终目的是出售的商品和服务。在平面设计中, “本质上是给予,以信息,形式,以思想,表达情感的文物,该文件人类的经验” 。 早的 画在洞穴的lascaux靠近14000 BC和诞生的书面语言,在第三或第四位千禧年卑诗省,都是重要的里程碑,在历史的平面设计和其他领域举行的根源,以平面设计。 这本书的kells是一个早期的例子,平面设计。这是一个lavishly装饰手写副本福音的基督教圣经所造成的凯尔特僧侣左右800ad 。 [编辑]发明印刷 主要文章:历史的印刷 在唐代( 618-906 ) bettween了第四和第七世纪的广告木块分别减少打印对纺织品和稍后重现佛教文本。 1佛经印刷, 868是已知最早的印刷书籍。开始,在11世纪,更长的春联和书籍,制作了使用活字印使图书广泛使用期间,宋dyanasty ( 960-1279 ) 。 [ 3 ]左右1450年,约翰古腾堡的印刷向新闻界发表的书籍广泛地提供在欧洲。这本书的设计aldus努求斯开发的这本书的结构将成为西部的基础,出版设计。这个时代的平面设计是所谓的人文,还是老作风。 [ 4 ] [编辑]开始,工业设计 在19世纪后期欧洲,特别是在联合王国,运动开始独立平面设计从美术。蒙德里安是被称为父亲的图形设计。他是一个艺术家的罚款,但他利用网格的启发,现代的网格系统使用的今天,在广告,印刷和Web版式。 [ 5 ] 在1849年,亨利科尔就成为最重要的力量,在设计教育在英国,通报政府的重要的设计在他的杂志的设计和制造。他组织了伟大的展览作为庆祝现代工业技术和维多利亚设计。 从1892年至1896年威廉莫里斯凯尔姆斯科特出版社出版的书籍是一些最重要的平面设计产品的工艺美术运动,并提出了一个非常赚钱的生意创造的帐簿,伟大的文体完善和出售给富人为补价。莫里斯证明了市场存在的作品,平面设计在他们自己的权利,并帮助先驱分离设计,从生产和从美术。的工作,该凯尔姆斯科特新闻,其特点是痴迷的历史风格。这是历史,然而,重要,因为它为第一显着的反应,陈旧的状态十九世纪的平面设计。莫里斯的工作,随着其余的私营新闻运动,直接影响了新艺术风格和间接负责的事态发展在20世纪初图形设计的一般问题。 [ 6 ] 二十世纪设计 任期平面设计首次创造了由William艾迪德威金斯,美国图书设计师在20世纪初[ 7 ] 标志在伦敦地下铁路是一个典型的[引文需要]现代的时代和使用的字型设计,以爱德华约翰斯顿在1916年。 在20世纪20年代,苏联的建构适用于智力生产'在不同领域中的生产方式。运动看到个性化的艺术,作为无用的,在俄罗斯的革命,从而走向创造对象的功利目的。他们设计的建筑物,战区集,海报,面料,服装,家具,徽标,菜单等[引文需要] 1月tschichold编纂的原则,现代印刷术在他的1928本书,新的印刷术。后来他推翻了哲学,他信奉在这本书作为fascistic ,但它仍然非常有影响力。 [引文需要] tschichold ,包豪斯typographers如赫伯特拜耳和拉兹洛莫霍伊-纳吉,和El lissitzky是父亲的图形设计[引文需要]作为今天我们所知道的。他们首创的生产技术和文体器材在整个二十世纪。随后的几年看到的图形设计,在现代风格得到广泛的接受和应用。 [ 8 ]发展蓬勃,二次世界大战后,美国经济建立了一个更大的需要平面设计,主要是广告和包装。移民的德国包豪斯设计学院芝加哥,在1937年带来了“大规模生产”极简主义到美国;引发了一场野火“现代”建筑和设计。显着的名字在本世纪中期,现代设计包括阿德里安frutiger ,设计师的字体univers和frutiger ;保罗兰德,谁,从20世纪30年代后期,直到他的去世在1996年,参加的原则,包豪斯和应用他们受欢迎的广告及标志设计,帮助创造一个独特的美国的做法,向欧洲简约而成为其中一个主要的开拓者子图形设计称为企业形象;米勒和约瑟夫- brockmann ,是谁设计的海报在严重的,但进入的方式,典型的五十年代和六十年代。 [编辑]工具 关键的,观测,定量分析和思想都需要设计,布局和渲染。如果遗嘱执行人,只是下面的示意图,脚本或指示(可提供一艺术总监) ,他们通常不考虑作者。布局是生产使用外部的传统或数码影像编辑工具。选择适当的工具,为每个项目的关键是如何在该项目将所察觉到它的观众。 在八十年代中期,到达桌面出版和版画艺术的应用软件推出了新一代设计师的计算机图像处理和创造了原先被手动执行枪决。计算机图形设计,使设计人员能够即时看到效果布局或排版的变化,而不使用任何墨水,和模拟的影响,传统的媒体,而不需要大量的空间。但是,传统的工具,如铅笔或标记常常被用来发展思路,甚至当电脑是用于最后定稿。 电脑通常被视为一项不可缺少的工具中使用的图形设计业。计算机及软件应用系统,一般看到的,创造性的专业人士,作为更有效的生产工具,比传统的方法。不过,有些设计师继续使用手册和传统的生产工具,如米尔顿格拉塞。 新的思路来的方式进行实验的工具和方法。一些设计师的思路,探索用铅笔和纸,以避免造成内部的界限,无论电脑字体,剪贴画,风景,照片,或使过滤器(如启的电动工具) ,可对任何特定的配置。其他使用许多不同的马克决策的工具和资源从电脑棍棒和淤泥作为一种手段,启发创造力。其中一个重要的特点,平面设计,就是它使一个工具列适当的形象,选择在以传达的意思。 [ 9 ] [编辑]电脑银两创作过程 也有一些辩论的电脑是否提高创作过程的图形设计。 [ 10 ]快速生产,从电脑,让许多设计师探索多种思路迅速与更详细的比什么就可以实现由传统的手工绘制或粘贴的后续文件,移动设计师透过创作过程更迅速。 [ 11 ]但是,面对无限的选择,不利于孤立的最佳设计方案,并可能导致无休止的设计师迭代没有一个明确的设计结果。 1平面设计师可使用素描探索多种或复杂的概念迅速[ 12 ]没有潜在的分心技术上的困难,从软件故障或学习软件。 [引文需要] ,另一方面提供comps常常被用来获得批准的一个想法执行之前,投资时间制作完成的视觉效果的电脑上,或在粘贴行动。同时缩略图素描草稿或粗糙的纸张可能被用来迅速完善和生产的想法在电脑上,在混合过程。这种混合的过程中是特别有用,在标志设计[ 13 ]如软件的学习曲线也许会减损从创造性思维的过程。该traditional-design/computer-production杂交的过程中可用于释放的创造力,在页面布局或图像发展。 [引文需要]传统的平面设计师可以聘请计算机巴黎人的生产艺术家出示他们的想法,从素描,而不需要学习电脑技能。不过,这种做法是利用较少以来的来临,桌面出版和其整合与大多数平面设计的课程。 [编辑]类型的平面设计 图形设计项目可能涉及的陈述现有的文字和图像,如与报纸的故事,开始与记者和摄影记者。然后,成为平面设计师的工作组织的网页成为一个布局合理,并确定是否有任何其他图形元素,应要求。在杂志上的文章或广告,往往是平面设计师或艺术总监将委托摄影师或插图画家创造的原件,只是将被纳入设计布局。当代设计实践已扩展至现代的计算机,例如在使用所见即所得的用户界面,往往被称为交互式设计,或是多媒体设计。 [编辑]页面布局 进一步的资料:页面布局 页面布局是部分图形设计处理,在安排和作风治疗要素(内容)在一个网页上。从早期的照明的页面在手复制的帐簿,中世纪和程序下降到错综复杂的现代杂志和目录布局,适当的网页设计长久以来一直考虑在印刷材料。与印刷媒体,分子通常的类型(文字) ,图像(图片) ,偶尔发生的持有人的图形元素不属于印有油墨,如模具/激光切割,铝箔冲压或失明压花。 [编辑]版画 进一步的资料:版画 版画是制作过程艺术品印刷,通常是纸上谈兵。除非是在案件monotyping ,这一进程是能够产生的倍数,同一块,这是所谓的打印。每一块是不是一个副本,但原来因为它不是复制的另一个工作的艺术和技术上被称为一个印象。绘画或素描,在另一方面,建立一个独特的原作品的艺术作品。版画是由一个单一的原始表面,众所周知,在技术上作为一个矩阵。常见的矩阵,包括:板,金属,通常是铜或锌雕刻或蚀刻;石料,用于光刻;座木材为木刻, linoleum为linocuts和织物板的丝网印刷。但也有许多其他种,在下文中讨论。工程印刷从一个单一的板创造一个版,在现代的时代,一般每个签名和编号,以形成一个限量版。版画也可能出版成册,作为艺术家的书籍。一个单一的打印,可产品的一个或多个技术。 [编辑]印刷术 进一步的资料:印刷术 印刷术是艺术,工艺和技术型的设计,修改类型字形,并安排类型。类型字形(字符)创建和修改利用各种插图的技巧。安排的类型是选择字体,点的大小,线长,领导(行距)和信间距。 印刷术是由typesetters , compositors , typographers ,图形艺术家,美术董事,工作者和办事员。直到数字时代,印刷术是一个专门的占领。数字化开辟了印刷术,以新一代的视觉设计师和奠定的用户。 [编辑]网页设计 进一步的资料:网页设计 平面设计师,往往涉及的网页设计。结合视觉沟通的技巧与互动的沟通技巧使用者互动和网上品牌,平面设计师,往往工作与Web开发人员能够创建两个外观和感觉一个网站,并加强在线体验的网站访客。 在就业领域,许多公司寻找某人谁可以两者都做平面设计和Web应用开发所涉及的网页设计,包括编程。是有大量的辩论中,专业的设计,社会是否这种趋势是积极的,或如果平面设计师正在过度,专责与无亲属关系的技能和学科。协作网站设计团队有可能会分裂的任务之间的平面设计师和软件工程师。 [编辑]职业 进一步的资料:平面设计行业 [编辑]生产艺术家 进一步的资料:生产艺术家 生产艺术家是一项技术性和往往被视为一个入门级的职务,在创造性的行业。该职称起源于广告代理商,指派什么被称为粘贴的后续工作(现在的印前生产)的立场。它的往往被假定为一平面设计师或艺术总监,在培训的立场,类似学徒。生产艺术家紧密合作,设计师和艺术总监执行的设计。与众不同之处是什么“艺术生产” ,从设计,是缺乏机会利用创意和设计的培训,所涉及的工作。虽然未平仓合约可能被视为低技术劳动,程度,技术所需的知识,对一些生产艺术作品,可媲美高技能工程,特别是与电脑。 [编辑]艺术总监 进一步的资料:艺术总监 任期艺术总监是一个一刀切的标题,各种类似的工作职能,在广告,出版,电影和电视,互联网和视频游戏。 [编辑]广告与营销 艺术导演的广告不一定是头一个艺术部虽然标题可能建议。在现代广告的做法,它们通常工作在随一copywriter 。两者合计,或艺术总监及copywriter工作的一个概念,为商业广告,印刷广告,以及其他任何广告媒介。个别地,艺术总监是主要负责视觉的外观和风格的创意产品,以及copywriter已最终责任,产品的口头和文字内容。两者都是负责未来与大的,有效的和有说服力的想法。 [编辑]电影 1艺术总监,在层次结构的一个电影艺术部,工程直接以低于生产的设计师,在协作与一套装饰,和上述的一套设计师。很大一部分是他们的职责,包括行政方面的艺术部。他们负责分配任务的人员,保持轨道的艺术部门预算和调度,以及整体的质量控制。他们往往也联络到其他部门;特别是建设部门。在过去,艺术总监的标题是用来表示元首艺术署(因此,奥斯卡最佳美术指导) 。 [编辑]出版 艺术导演通常在出版工作与刊物的编辑。他们共同工作的概念,章节和页的出版物。个别地,艺术总监是主要负责视觉的外观和感觉的出版,编辑器有最终的责任,为出版物的口头和文字内容。 [编辑]实际设计应用 从道路标志,以技术示意图,从部门间备忘录参考手册,图形设计,提高知识转让。可读性,是提高,改善视觉效果的文字。 设计还可以援助在销售产品或思想,通过有效的视觉沟通。将它应用到产品和要素的公司一样,身份标志,颜色和文字。连同这些被界定为品牌。看到广告。品牌日益成为重要的服务范围内所提供的许多平面设计师,除了企业的身份和条件,往往是互换使用。 教科书的目的是,目前的科目,如地理,科学,数学。这些出版物有布局的理论说明和图表。一个共同的例子,在使用图形,教育是图的人体解剖。平面设计也适用于布局和格式的教育材料,使信息更方便和更容易理解的。 平面设计是应用在娱乐行业的装饰,自然风光,及视觉讲故事。其他的例子,设计是为了娱乐的目的,包括小说,漫画,开幕和闭幕学分学分,在电影中,程序和道具,在舞台上。 从科技期刊到新闻报道,介绍了意见和事实往往是改善与图形技术和周到的组成视觉信息-被称为信息化设计。报纸,杂志,博客,电视和电影纪录片可能会使用平面设计,告知和娱乐。与的来临,网络,信息与经验的设计师在互动工具如Adobe Flash是越来越多地被用来说明背景的新闻故事。


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