雄伯通俗化拉康 14a

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来自: springhero 大他者 2011-11-30 11:37:07

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  • springhero

    springhero 大他者 楼主 2011-11-30 22:34:18

    雄伯通俗化拉康 142b Jacques Lacan 雅克 拉冈 The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis 精神分析学四个基本概念 Partial Object and its Circuit 部份的客体及其流通 2 Freud now introduces us to the drive by one of the most traditional ways, using at every moment the resources of the language, and not hesitating to base himself on something that belongs only to certain linguistic systems., the three voices, active, passive and reflexive. But this is merely an envelope. We must see that this signifying reversion is something other, something other than what it dresses in. What is fundamental at the level of each drive is the movement outwards and back in which it is structured. 弗洛伊德现在以传统的方式,为我们介绍驱力。他不时使用语言的资源,毫不迟疑地,他将基础建立于只属于某些语言系统的东西上,如主动、被动、反身及物、三个语态。但这只是外表包装。我们必须看出,能指的翻转是某件其它不同于它所包装的东西。驱力层次最基本的东西,是它由自己的结构,向外冲撞,而又回来的动作。 雄伯注: 弗洛伊德对于驱力,用三种语态来解释。网络有较明确的解释; Lacan maintains Freud's distinction between drive (Trieb) and instinct (Instinkt). Drives differ from biological needs because they can never be satisfied and do not aim at an object but rather circle perpetually around it. The true source of jouissance is the repetition of the movement of this closed circuit. Lacan posits the drives as both cultural and symbolic constructs—to him, "the drive is not a given, something archaic, primordial." He incorporates the four elements of the drives as defined by Freud (the pressure, the end, the object and the source) to his theory of the drive's circuit: the drive originates in the erogenous zone, circles round the object, and returns to the erogenous zone. The three grammatical voices structure this circuit: 拉康主张,弗洛伊德区别驱力与本能的差异。驱力不同于生物上的需要,因为它们永远无法被满足,并且目标并不是朝向客体,代替的,驱力永远地环绕客体旋转。欢爽的真实的来源,就是这个封闭迴圈的动作的重复。拉康提出这个驱力,作为既是文化,又是符号的建构—对于拉康,「驱力并不是一个理所当然的假定,某件过时,原始的东西。」他将弗洛伊德定义的驱力的四个元素( 压力、目标、客体及来源),合并到他的驱力迴圈的的理论:驱力起源于性的敏感地带,环绕客体旋转,然后再回到性的敏感地带。有三个文法的语态,作为这个迴圈的结构。 1. the active voice (to see) 主动语态( 看见) 2. the reflexive voice (to see oneself) 反身语态 (看见自己) 3. the passive voice (to be seen) 被动语态 (让自己被看见) The active and reflexive voices are autoerotic—they lack a subject. It is only when the drive completes its circuit with the passive voice that a new subject appears. Despite being the "passive" voice, the drive is essentially active: "to make oneself be seen" rather than "to be seen." The circuit of the drive is the only way for the subject to transgress the pleasure principle. 主动及反身语态都是自动性欲—它们欠缺一个主体。仅有当驱力以被动语态完成它的迴圈,新的主体才会出现。仅管驱力成为「被动语态」,它基本上还是主动语态:「让自己被看见」,而不是「被看见」。驱力的迴圈是最好的方法,让主体逾越快乐原则。 Lacan identifies four partial drives: the oral drive (the erogenous zones are the lips, the partial object the breast), the anal drive (the anus and the feces), the scopic drive (the eyes and the gaze) and the invocatory drive (the ears and the voice). The first two relate to demand and the last two to desire. If the drives are closely related to desire, they are the partial aspects in which desire is realized—desire is one and undivided, whereas the drives are its partial manifestations 拉康辨认出四个部分驱力:口腔驱力(性感地带是嘴唇,部分客体是乳房),肛门驱力( 肛门及粪便),视觉驱力(眼睛及凝视),以及召唤驱力( 耳朵及声音)。前面两样跟要求有关,后两者跟欲望有关。假如这些驱力跟欲望息息相关,它们是欲望被满足时的两个部分。---欲望是一个整体,而且无法分裂;而驱力则是部分的展现。 *********** It is remarkable that Freud can designate these two poles simply by using something that is the verb. Beschauen und beschaut werden, to see and to be seen, qualen and gequalt werden, to torment and to be tormented. This is because, from the outset, Freud takes it as understood that no part of this distance covered can be separated from its outwards-and-back movement, from its fundamental reversion, from the circular character of the path of the drive. 耐人寻味的是,佛洛伊德仅仅使用动词的主被动,如看见与被看见,折磨与被折磨,来指明这两个极端。这是因为从一开始,佛洛伊德认为他所研究发现的东西,大家都已经心知肚明,不外乎是:向外冲撞而又回来的动作,驱力的根本的翻转,以及驱力的途径具有循环的特性。 Similarly, it is remarkable that, in order to illustrate the dimension of this Verkehrung, he should choose Schaulust, the pleasure of seeing, and what he cannot designate other than by the combination of two terms in sado-masochism. When he speaks of these two drives, and especially of masochism, he is careful to observe that there are not two stages in these drives, but three. One must distinguish the return into the circuit of the drive of that which appears—but also does not appear—in a third stage. Namely, the appearance of em neues Subjekt, to be understood as follows—not in the sense that there is already one, namely the subject of the drive, but in that what is new is the appearance of a subject. This subject, which is properly the other, appears in so far as the drive has been able to show its circular course. It is only with its appearance at the level of the other that what there is of the function of the drive may be realized. 同样耐人寻味的是,为了解释这个来回的疏离,他竟然选择窥视的快乐一词,以及不得不使用虐待狂与受虐狂两个术语来说明。当他提到这两个驱力,特别是受虐狂,他仔细地观察到,这两个驱力并不是两个阶段,而是三个阶段。我们必须区别驱力的循环回来时,若有若失的东西隐隐若现,那就是第三阶段。换言之,这个第三阶段的出现,可以被理解如下:不是驱力的主体事先存在,新奇的妙事是,主体现在才出现。这个主体,不妨说是大他者的主体,出现在驱力能够展现它循环的过程时。只有随着这个大他者的出现,驱力的功用才可能被实现。 雄伯曰: 驱力既然具有主动与被动的特性,用虐待狂与受虐狂来说明,倒也清楚。问题是怎么变成三个阶段呢?拉康强调,并不是原先就有一个主体,(如果原先就有,主体就会很清楚。)而是由于驱力的主动向外观看,到令自己被看,再回头观看自己,才蓦然发现,作为大他者的主体就在自己的欲望那里。就像大乘佛教谓人人有佛性,可是大家往往不自觉,只有经由自己向外寻求,被寻求,然后回归自己欲望本身时,才蓦然发现自己就是佛,自己就有大悲心。 It is to this that I would now like to draw your attention. You see here, on the blackboard, a circuit formed by the curve of this rising and redescending arrow that crosses, Drang as it is in its origin, the surface constituted by what I defined last time as the rim, which is regarded in the theory as the source, the Quelle, that is to say, the so-called erogenous zone in the drive. The tension is always loop-shaped and cannot be separated from its return to the erogenous zone. 我现在要提醒你们注意的就是这个。你们在此看到,在黑板上,有一条上升及重新下降的箭头的曲线,形成一道循环。这条起源于欲望的曲线,越过我上次定义为边缘所组成的表面。这个边缘在精神分析理论,被认为是来源所在。换言之,就是所谓驱力的性感地带。这个敏感的地带是个回旋的形状,无法跟它的的回转地带区隔开来。 雄伯: 这个驱力的迴旋形状图,书本上有。可是我画不出来,也无法贴上影象档,不晓的Fullmetal 能不能帮忙找一下贴上来。否则光靠文字叙述,大家看得懂否? Here we can clear up the mystery of the zielgelzemmt, of that form that the drive may assume, in attaining its satisfaction without attaining its aim—in so far as it would be defined by a biological function, by the realization of reproductive coupling. For the partial drive does not lie there. What is it? 在此,我们能够弄清楚,驱力所形成的状态的神秘,就在于不必到达目标,就得到它的满足,因为它被定义为一种生物的功能,实现繁殖交配的功用。可是,部份的驱力并不是在那里。那部份的驱力是什么? 雄伯曰: 驱力所形成的状态,是一种神秘,而且不必到达目标,就得到它的满足,但是这是繁殖交配功用的生物的本能。跟性作为部分驱力的功用不一样。 Let us still suspend the answer, but let us concentrate on this term but, and on the two meanings it may present. In order to differentiate them, I have chosen to notate them here in a language in which they are particularly expressive, English. When you entrust someone with a mission, the aim is not what he brings back, but the itinerary he must take. The aim is the way taken. The French word but may be translated by another word in English, goal. In archery, the goal is not the but either, it is not the bird you shoot, it is having scored a hit and thereby attained your but. 让我们暂时不回答这个问题。我们先专注于这个术语,专注于它可能呈现的两个意义。为了要区别它们,我选择用特别能使它们表现生动的语言,我用英文来描绘它们的回转。当你们信任某个人可以从事某个任务,他所带回的,不是这个任务的目标,而是他所从事的途径。「目标」就是所从事的途径。法文的「但是」在英文可以用另一个字翻译为「目的」。在拉弓射箭时,目的也不是这个「但是」。目的不是你要射中的鸟,而是你已经达成目的,因此你获得你的「但是」。 雄伯: 「当你们信任某个人可以从事某个任务,他所带回的,不是这个任务的目标,而是他所从事的途径。「目标」就是所从事的途径。」这句话有点费解,仔细想一想,我们的生活中有没有这种情景?有了,我记得以前看过一个影片,几位聪明绝顶的人才,筹划盗取机关重重的银行地下金库。盗取出来后,运上轮船,铸成轮船的锚,放入海中,躲过警探追查。逃离途中,黄金却因为暴风雨而掉落大海,等于是功亏一篑。电影的重点不在强调黄金的目标获得与否,而在于强调盗取过分的智慧算计,及行动的天衣无缝,所带给观众的紧张刺激。 If the drive may be satisfied without attaining what, from the point of view of a biological totalization of function, would be the satisfaction of its end of reproduction, it is because it is a partial drive, and its aim is simply this return into circuit. This theory is present in Freud. He tells us somewhere that the ideal model for auto-eroticism would be a single mouth kissing itself—a brilliant, even dazzling metaphor, in this respect so typical of everything he writes, and which requires only to be completed by a question. In the drive, is not this mouth what might be called a mouth in the form of an arrow?—a mouth sewn up, in which, in analysis, we see indicating as clearly as possible, in certain silences, the pure agency of the oral drive, closing upon its own satisfaction. 假如驱力的得到满足,不必从生物的整体的功用而言,经由它的繁殖交配的目的来得到,那是因为部份的驱力的存在,而它的目的仅仅就是回转到它的循环。这个理论,佛洛伊德已经提出。他在某个地方曾告诉我们:性冲动的自动机能,理想的模式将是一张嘴巴的自吻。这个比喻生猛鲜活,形容佛洛伊德的著作等身,再贴切不过。还有待回答的只剩一个问题。在驱力的循环,嘴巴难道不就是箭头形状的那个开口处的嘴巴?那个被缝合的嘴巴?在精神分析经验,我们很清楚看到,在某些沉默的时刻,口腔的驱力欲语还休,一经满足就封闭。 雄伯曰: 「性冲动的自动机能,理想的模式将是一张嘴巴的自吻。」这个比喻确实是生猛鲜活。拉康用来形容弗洛伊德的丰功伟业,我们亦心有戚戚焉,也真想用来聊慰自己平凡的一生。不过,拉康提醒我们:在某些沉默的时刻,口腔的驱力欲语还休,一经满足就封闭。 In any case, what makes us distinguish this satisfaction from the mere auto-eroticism of the erogenous zone is the object that we confuse all too often with that upon which the drive closes —this object, which is in fact simply the presence of a hollow, a void, which can be occupied, Freud tells us, by any object, and whose agency we know only in the form of the lost object, the petit a. The objet petit a is not the origin of the oral drive. It is not introduced as the original food, it is introduced from the fact that no food will ever satisfy the oral drive, except by circumventing the eternally lacking object. 无论如何,区别这个满足,跟性感地带的性冲动的自动机能的满足,有何不同的地方,就是我们时常将驱力的封闭,混淆成为它的客体。事实上,这个客体仅仅是一个空洞的存在,一个无法被任何客体占据的空无,佛洛伊德如此告诉我们,我们只是知道,这个客体的代理是失落的客体,小客体。这个小客体不是口腔驱力的起源。它不是被介绍作为原初的食物。它之所以被介绍,是因为食物永远满足不了口腔的驱力,食物只是权充对于这个永远失落的客体的代理。 雄伯: 拉康提醒我们:食物永远满足不了口腔的驱力,食物只是权充对于这个永远失落的客体的代理。那怎么办呢?我的一些迷恋于食物小客体的朋友,经常这样问?全市的精致餐厅,都已经被他们光顾遍了。 The question now confronting us is this—where is this circuit plugged in and, to begin with, is it spiral in form, that is to say, is the circuit of the oral drive continued by the anal drive, which would then be the following stage? Is it a case of dialectical progress being produced out of opposition? Even for people who are used to us, it is already to carry the question rather far, in the name of some kind of mystery of development, to regard the thing as already acquired, inscribed in the organism. 我们现在面临的问题是:这个循环的衔接点在哪理?循环起初是回旋形状吗?换言之,口腔驱力的循环,会以下一阶段的肛门驱力继续吗?这是个阴阳两性所产生的辩证历程吗?你若是将这个问题,当着是你已经在自身的有机体生命获得验证,获得解答,你未免过于自信。即使你对于精神分析经验甚为熟稔,你要知道,天机奥秘,知之不祥。 雄伯曰: 四种驱力彼此之间或许会关联,但是欲望的驱力问题,不可能仅在「自身的有机体生命获得验证,获得解答」。而是要从实在界的无意识的源头去寻找。 This conception seems to be sustained by the fact that as far as the emergence of sexuality in a so-called completed form is concerned, we are certainly dealing with an organic process. But there is no reason to extend this fact to the relation between the other partial drives. There is no relation of production between one of the partial drives and the next. 这个观念似乎由下面这个事实得到左证:就性总要达到高潮才会爽快而言,我们确实是在处理有机体的生命过程。但是,我们仍然没有理由,将这个事实,扩大到其它部份驱力之间的关系。某一部份驱力产生的结果,未必跟下一个部份驱力产生的结果,有任何关系。 The passage from the oral drive to the anal drive can be produced not by a process of maturation, but by the intervention of something that does not belong to the field of the drive—by the intervention, the overthrow, of the demand of the Other. If we introduce the other drives with which the series may be formed, and the number of which is fairly short, it is quite clear that you would find it very difficult indeed to situate in relation to the drives that I have just named, in a historical succession, the Schaulust, or scopic drive, or even what I will later distinguish as the invocatory drive (la pulsion invocante), and to establish between them the slightest relation of deduction or genesis. 从口腔驱力到肛门驱力的历程,不一定要经过长大成年的过程,而是要经过驱力以外的某件东西的介入,换言之,经过大它者所要求的介入跟翻转。即使我介绍过其它数目不多的驱力,例如,我刚刚提到的视觉驱力 或我后来又揭露的召唤驱力,因为它们跟这一系列的形成有关,显而易见,你们将会发现,要从它们衍生的过程,找到彼此关系的位置,或在彼此之间,建立演变或起源的丝毫关系,确实都不是一件很容易的事情。 雄伯曰 拉康强调:从口腔驱力到肛门驱力的历程,不一定要经过长大成年的过程,而是要经过驱力以外的某件东西的介入,换言之,经过大它者所要求的介入跟翻转。实在界的无意识是介入驱力的主要因素,也是我们念兹在兹的东西。 There is no natural metamorphosis of the oral drive into the anal drive. Whatever appearances may emerge to the contrary from the play of the symbol constituted, in other contexts, by the supposed anal object, namely, the faeces, in relation to the phallus in its negative effect, we can in no sense--- experience shows us — consider that there is a continuity between the anal phase and the phallic phase, that there is a relation of natural metamorphosis. 从口腔驱力到肛门躯力的蜕变,并不是很自然的过程。就组成的符号的运作而言,出现的表象符号,在其它的情境,可能会是完全相反的表象符号。例如,口腔驱力的食物,蜕变成为所谓肛门驱力的客体,换言之,粪便,或阳具驱力的附作用,尿尿。精神分析经验告诉我们,我们完全没有办法认为,肛门的部份驱力,跟阳具的部份驱力,有任何的连续性,或彼此的蜕变有任何关系。 We must consider the drive under the heading of the kon- stante Kcraft that sustains it as a stationary tension. Let us take a look at the metaphors that Freud gives us to express these outlets. Take Schub, for example, which he immediately translates by the image that it bears in his mind, that of a spindle of lava, a material emission from the deflagration of energy that has occurred there in various successive stages, which complete, one after another, that form of return journey. Do we not see in the Freudian metaphor the embodiment of this fundamental structure—something that emerges from a rim, which redoubles its enclosed structure, following a course that returns, and of which nothing else ensures the consistency except the object, as something that must be circumvented. 我们考虑驱力,不妨先给它一个大标题:「蓄势待发」,意思是,驱力被维持作为一种蠢蠢欲动的紧张力量。让我们先看一下,佛洛伊德为了表达这些发泄,所给予的比喻。以精液为例,他立即以脑海浮现的岩浆的爆发的意象,将它翻译成为一种能源的逬发,所产生出来的物资。这个物质以各种连续的阶段发生在那里,然后陆续地,绕一圈回转到原来的地方。从佛洛伊德的这个比喻,我们难道不是看到驱力这个基本结构的具体形象?从边缘出现的某件东西,以封闭的形状重迭增加,遵循回转的途径前进。除了这个客体作为某件必须被包围的东西,没有其它一样东西可以保证它的持续性,。 雄伯曰: 欲望驱力的一个特征是边缘,封闭,与回转:从边缘出现的某件东西,以封闭的形状重迭增加,遵循回转的途径前进。 客体并不是它的目标,而是被环绕的东西。 This articulation leads us to make of the manifestation of the drive the mode of a headless subject, for everything is articulated in it in terms of tension, and has no relation to the subject other than one of topological community. I have been able to articulate the unconscious for you as being situated in the gaps that the distribution of the signifying investments sets up in the subject, and which figure in the algorithm in the form of a losange [<>], which I place at the centre of any relation of the unconscious between reality and the subject. Well! It is in so far as something in the apparatus of the body is structured in the same way, it is because of the topological unity of the gaps in play, that the drive assumes its role in the functioning of the unconscious. 佛洛伊德的表述引导我们将驱力的展现,解释为无头主体的乱闯,因为驱力的每一样东西,都是用紧张力量的术语来表述,而且这些东西,必需是主体处于拓扑图形的社会之内,才会发生关联。我之所以能够表述无意识,因为它的位置,就在意符的投注散布在主体身上形成的裂口,形状像是邮戳的四角方块。我将这个裂口,放置在无意识处于现实界与主体之间的关系中心。驱力扮演它在无意识的功用的角色,如同身体装置的某件零件的功用,因为这个裂口的运作,在社会环境里有其脉络可循。 雄伯曰 拉康将欲望驱力解释为一种向往冲撞,然后回转。他运用「无头主体」headless subject的意象。这个欲望驱力的无头主体acephalic subject 跟主体没有关系,除了作为拓扑图形的社会一份子。因为驱力仅牵涉到主体的某一面或某一边。将「欲望驱力的主体」当著是实际的一个主体,并不是很恰当。拉康说,在这个层次,我们并不需要去考虑到主体的主体化。我们正在考虑的是一个非主体化的主体。它的特征主要是欠缺,某件东西失落,头不见了。拉康在此提到这个主体为一个欠缺的工具。这个东西形成一个空洞,或是让东西出现作为欠缺。「工具」这个术语意味着主体的这一边,欲望驱力的这一边,最好被构想成为客体。主体在此失落自己,成为仅是一个小客体。 「<>」这个邮戳般的四角方块,是拉康用来作驱力的辩证法,无意识处于感觉的主体与被妥协的现实界之间的关系。左边尖端代表被划杠的主体,通过欲望驱力,从逆时钟方向,到底下尖端的无意识,到右边尖端的小客体,再逆时钟方向,到上方尖端的无意识,再回转到被划杠的主体。 雄伯译 32hsiung@pchome.com.tw http://springhero.wordpress.com

  • springhero

    springhero 大他者 楼主 2011-12-01 10:59:56

    Concept 14c Jacques Lacan 雅克 拉冈 The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis 精神分析学四个基本概念 Partial Object and its Circuit 部份客体及其流通 3 Let us now follow Freud when he talks to us about Schaulust, seeing, being seen. Is it the same thing? How can it even be sustained that it can be that, except by inscribing it in terms of signifiers? Or is there, then, some other mystery? There is a quite different one, and, in order to introduce you to it, I have only to point out that Schaulust is manifested in perversion. I stress that the drive is not perversion. What constitutes the enigmatic character of Freud's presentation derives precisely from the fact that he wishes to give us a radical structure—in which the subject is not yet placed. On the contrary, what defines perversion is precisely the way in which the subject is placed in it. 佛洛伊德跟我们谈过观看及被观看,让我接下去谈。观看与被观看是同一件事吗。?这个观点怎么可能自圆其说,除非是用意符的差异?或者,还有其它的奥妙?有一个相当不同的奥妙,容我在此介绍一下。我所要指出的是,观看常以倒错的方式展现。可是,我强调一点:驱力不是倒错。 佛洛伊德呈现这个观点,有些晦涩难解之处,主要是在于他希望给予一个激进的结构,在主体尚位找到定位以前。相反的,倒错的定义,恰恰就是主体的位置所在。 雄伯曰 欲望驱力跟倒错都牵涉到翻转,因此看起有点类似。但是拉康强调,驱力并不是倒错。因为倒错预先假设有主体存在。而欲望驱力则需经由向外观看,使自己被观看,再翻转回来观看自己时,始能发现欲望驱力是什么? We must read Freud's text very attentively here. The value of Freud's texts on this matter, in which he is breaking new ground, is that like a good archaeologist, he leaves the work of the dig in place—so that, even if it is incomplete, we are able to discover what the excavated objects mean. When Mr Fenichel passes by the same ground, he does as one used to do, he gathers everything up, puts it in his pockets and in glass cases, without any kind of order, or at least in a completely arbitrary order, so that nothing can be found again. 我们必须非常仔细地阅读佛洛伊德的本文。佛洛伊德对于这个观点的本文的价值,发前人所未见。就像是一位优秀考古学家的本文,他将他挖掘的遗迹留在那里,虽然未竟全功,我们还能够继续去发现,已经被挖掘出来的东西是什么?。当精神分析师菲尼差,经过相同的遗址时,跟一般人以前的做法一样,他将所有的东西收拢起来,放进他的口袋跟玻璃柜,没有整理,至少没有分门别类地整理。所以,在那里,再没有什么可发现了。 What occurs in voyeurism? At the moment of the act of the voyeur, where is the subject, where is the object? I have told you that the subject is not there in the sense of seeing, at the level of the scopic drive. He is there as pervert and he is situated only at the culmination of the loop. As for the object—this is what my topology on the blackboard cannot show you, but can allow you to admit—the loop turns around itself; it is a missile, and it is with it, in perversion, that the target is reached. 窥视狂发生什么事?在窥视动作的那个时刻,主体在哪理?客体在哪里?我曾告诉过你们,从观看的意义,在视觉驱力的层次,主体并不在那里。主体在那里是作为一为倒错者,他的位置是在圈套位置的最上方。至于客体,我画在黑板上的图形没有显示,但是你们还是能够看得出来:客体就在圈套的倒转处。那客体就像是一颗飞弹,在倒错中,目标被飞弹击中。 雄伯曰 窥视狂是倒错行为?还是驱力?拉康强调从视觉驱力来看,主体并不在那儿。我们以为的主体,其实仅是倒错者。至于客体,驱力的迴圈环绕客体,旋转后翻转回实在界的无意识,而倒错者则以为他获得符号界的客体,就是获得实在界的无意识。 The object, here, is the gaze—the gaze that is the subject, which attains it, which hits the bull's eye in target-shooting. I have only to remind you what I said of Sartre's analysis. Although this analysis brings out the agency of the gaze, it is not at the level of the other whose gaze surprises the subject looking through the keyhole. It is that the other surprises him, the subject, as entirely hidden gaze. 在此的客体,就是凝视。主体以凝视充当飞弹,在瞄准时,击中靶心目标。我只需要提醒你们,我曾谈过对于沙特小说的分析。虽然这篇分析揭露凝视的功能,可是透过钥匙孔正在偷窥的主体,所受到的惊吓,我当时并没有提到是大他者的凝视。 雄伯曰 在沙特的存在主义的小说「呕吐」Nausea,主角,时时感觉自己被处于被凝视当中。观看者发现自己被观看,但是沙特跟拉康的视觉驱力不同的解释是,这种观看主体,成为被观看的客体,并没有翻转回实在界的无意识。 You grasp here the ambiguity of what is at issue when we speak of the scopic drive. The gaze is this object lost and suddenly refound in the conflagration of shame, by the introduction of the other. Up to that point, what is the subject trying to see? What he is trying to see, make no mistake, is the object as absence. What the voyeur is looking for and finds is merely a shadow, a shadow behind the curtain. There he will phantasize any magic of presence, the most graceful of girls, for example, even if on the other side there is only a hairy athlete. What he is looking for is not, as one says, the phallus—but precisely its absence, hence the pre-eminence of certain forms as objects of his search. 当我们提到视觉的驱力,你了解到争议的问题有些模糊。凝视是这个迷失的客体,然后在羞愧交加的灾难中,由于它者的介入,重新被找回。直到现在,主体到底设法要观看什么?无可置疑地,他一直设法观看的,就是客体做为一种欠缺。窥视狂找到的,只是一个阴影,一个窗帘背后的阴影。例如,他会将任何存在现场的东西,驰骋幻想为风华绝代的惊艳美人,但实际上,在门后的另一边,那只是一位头发蓬松的运动员。他所正在寻找的,不是阳具,如一般人所说,而道地道地是阳具的欠缺,因此某些的东西就会突显出来,作为他寻求的客体。 雄伯曰 在此,拉康釐清视觉驱力的的凝视与窥视狂的差别。视觉驱力是「凝视这个迷失的客体,然后在羞愧交加的灾难中,由于大他者的介入,重新被找回。」明显的特征是「迷失的客体被找回」,「羞愧交加」,及「他者的介入」。而窥视狂则是「只是一个阴影,一个窗帘背后的阴影。例如,他会将任何存在现场的东西,驰骋幻想为风华绝代的惊艳美人,但实际上,在门后的另一边,那只是一位头发蓬松的运动员。他所正在寻找的,不是阳具,如一般人所说,而道地道地是阳具的欠缺,因此某些的东西就会突显出来,作为他寻求的客体。」 What one looks at is what cannot be seen. If, thanks to tic' introduction of the other, the structure of the drive appears, it is really completed only in its reversed form, in its return form, which is the true active drive. In exhibitionism what is intended by the subject is what is realized in the other. The true aim of desire is the other, as constrained, beyond his involvement in the scene. It is not only the victim who is concerned in exhibitionism, it is the victim as referred to some other who is looking at him. 我们所观看的东西,其实是无法看得见的东西。借着它者这个术语的介绍,驱力的结构展现出来。驱力只有在其倒转的形式,在其回转的形式,才算功德圆满,才算是真正的主动的驱力。在暴露狂的展示中,主体所企图的目标,要在他者那里,才能够被实现。欲望的真正目的是他者,是主体身不由己地介入于现场之外的他者。在暴露狂的展示,关系到的不仅仅是受害者,而且是某个正在观看他的它者的受害者。 雄伯曰: 拉康进一步釐清视觉驱力与暴露狂的差异。视觉驱力除了观看及被观看外,要翻转回实在界的无意识。而暴露狂则是仅有观看及被观看,并没有翻转回到无意识的他者,因此仅是某个正在观看他的它者的受害者。 Thus in this text, we have the key, the nodus, of what has been so much an obstacle to the understanding of masochism. Freud articulated in the most categorical way that at the outset of the sado-masochistic drive, pain has nothing to do with it. It is a question of a Herrschaft, of Bewdltigung, violence done to what?—to something that is so unspeakable that Freud arrives at the conclusion, and at the same time recoils from it, that its first model, in accordance with everything I have told you, is to be found in a violence that the subject commits, with a view to mastery, upon himself. 因此,在这个本文,我们找到关键,一直以来阻碍我们了解受虐狂的关键点。佛洛伊德条分缕析地表达,刚开始时,虐待狂与受虐狂的驱力,跟痛苦没有丝毫没有关系,而是跟对于某个东西施加的暴力有关。这个东西无法言喻,佛洛伊德在结论时,已经抵达,而又退缩。这个东西,我一直在告诉你们。 我们能够找它的第一个模式,在主体为了控制自己,对于自己所从事的暴力。 雄伯说 在此,拉康给于虐待狂及受虐狂一个明确的定义:主体为了控制自己,对于自己所从事的暴力。这个暴力跟痛苦丝毫没有关系。 He recoils from it. And with good reason. The ascetic who flagellates himself does it for a third party. Now, this is not what he is trying to convey. He wishes only to designate the return, the insertion on one's own body, of the departure and the end of the drive. 弗洛伊德退缩,而且理由充份。苦行修行者鞭打自己,不是表演给第三者看的。现在,他所要表达的不是表演。他只希望表示,驱力的出发跟目的,会回转过来,插入他自己的身体 雄伯说: 拉康认为弗洛伊德已经发现这一点,却没有再深入。以苦行修行者为例,他鞭打自己,不是表演给第三者看的,而是要掌控自己,让驱力的出发与目的,会回转过来,插入他自己的身体。 At what moment, says Freud, do we see the possibility of pain introduced into the sado-masochistic drive?—the possibility of pain undergone by him who has become, at that moment, the subject of the drive. It is, he tells us, at the moment when the loop is closed, when it is from one pole to the other that there has been a reversal, when the other has come into play, when the subject has taken himself as the end, the terminus of the drive. 佛洛伊德问道,在什么时刻,我们才有可能看到,痛苦被介绍到虐待狂与受虐狂的驱力呢?就在他成为驱力的主体的那个时刻,他才可能经历到痛苦。佛洛伊德告诉我们,就在圈套封闭的时刻,就在从一端到另一端,他者开始运作,而发生倒转的时刻。在那个时刻,主体已经将自己当着是目标,驱力的终点。 雄伯说 虐待狂与受虐狂若仅是为了掌控自己的一种驱力的观看,被观看,及回转无意识,则无关乎痛苦。会经历到痛苦,是在驱力迴圈的圈套,在符号界被封闭时,也就是拉康所谓的「缝合」suture或「锚定点」anchoring point,将符号界的小他者,误识为就是实在界的无意识大他者,而形成一种病征。 At this moment, pain comes into play in so far as the subject experiences it from the other. He will become, will be able to become, in his theoretical deduction, a sadistic subject, in so far as the completed loop of the drive will have brought into play the action of the other. What is at issue in the drive is finally revealed here—the course of the drive is the only form of transgression that is permitted to the subject in relation to the pleasure principle. 在这时刻,痛苦开始运作,因为主体从它者那里经验到痛苦。在他这个戏剧性的演变中,他将成为,也将能够成为一位虐待狂的主体,因为驱力的完整的回旋,使它者的行动开使运作。驱力饱受争议的地方终于在此显现出来:相较于快乐原理,驱力的途径是主体唯一被允许的逾越的形式。 雄伯说 驱力的迴圈是主动观看,被观看,再翻转回实在界的无意识。若是在符号界被缝合,则会成为虐待狂及受虐狂的主体。 The subject will realize that his desire is merely a vain detour with the aim of catching the jouissance of the other—in so far as the other intervenes, he will realize that there is a jouissance beyond the pleasure principle. 主体将会体会到,为了要获得它者的欢跃,他的欲望仅仅是一个徒劳无功的迂回。当它者介入的时刻,他将体会到,欢跃存在于快乐原理之外。 雄伯说 虐待狂及受虐狂的主体,主要是要掌控自己,获得「欢爽」,却发现「欢爽」远在「快乐原则」的小客体之外。 The forcing of the pleasure principle by the effect of the partial drive—it is by this that we may conceive that the partial, ambiguous drives are installed at the limit of an Erhaltungstrieb, of the maintenance of a homeostasis, of its capture by the veiled face that is that of sexuality. 快乐原理受到部份驱力的影响所逼迫。从这里,我们可以构想,这个暧昧的部份驱力,被安置在维持体内平衡的最高点,它被戴面纱的脸孔,也就是性作为脸孔的凝视所捕捉。 It is in so far as the drive is evidence of the forcing of the pleasure principle that it provides us with evidence that beyond the Real-Ich, another reality intervenes, and we shall see by what return it is this other reality, in the last resort, that has given to this Real-Ich its structure and diversification. 因为驱力证明是快乐原理的逼迫,它也证明,在真实的自我之外,还有另外一个真实界介入。我们将会看到,这个它者的真实界,在最后,会以怎样的翻转,使原有的真实的自我,享有更丰富充实的生命光辉。 雄伯说 刚开始时,我一直被这个the other 困惑,搞不清楚the other是大他者?还是小他者?若是小他者,那跟小客体,有什么差别。译到这里,才开始有点明白。就实在界的无意识的大他者而言,这里的the other,指的是符号界的小他者,也就是小客体,但却被主体误认为就是实在界的大他者,而被缝合suture或锚定anchoring,而成为病征。 「快乐原则」pleasure principle及「真实自我」Real-Ich 都是弗洛伊德的术语,拉康则是在符号界the symbolic 之外,另外开辟一个「实在界」the real及「想象界」,来解释「快乐原则」及「真实自我」,不能仅是在符号界寻找,而要到实在界的无意识探本寻源。 雄伯译 32hsiung@pchome.com.tw http://springhero.wordpress.com

  • springhero

    springhero 大他者 楼主 2011-12-01 18:07:43

    Concept 14d Jacques Lacan 雅克 拉冈 The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis 精神分析学四个基本概念 Partial Object and its Circuit 部份客体及其流通 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 问与答 J . -A. Miller: The question concerns the relation between the drive and the real, and the differences between the object of the drive, that of phantasj and that of desire. 米勒:这个问题牵涉到驱力与实在界的关系。以及驱力的客体与幻见的客体,与欲望的客体之间的差异。 LACAN: The object of the drive is to be situated at the level of what I have metaphorically called a headless subjectification, a subjectification without subject, a bone, a structure, an outline, which represents one side of the topology. The other side is that which is responsible for the fact that a subject, through his relations with the signifier, is a subject-with-holes (sujet troué). 拉康:驱力的客体应该被定位在我曾经用比喻所谓的「无头的主体化」,一个没有主体、骨头、结构及轮廓的主体化。它代表了拓扑图形的一面。另一面要负责这个事实:主体通过跟能指的关系,是一个空洞的主体。 These holes came from somewhere. In his first constructions, his first networks of signifying crossroads to become stabilized, Freud was reaching towards something that, in the subject, is intended to maintain to the greatest possible degree what I have called homeostasis. 这些空洞来自某个地方。弗洛伊德在他的最初的建构,他最初的能指化的十字路的网络,为了要成为稳定下来,他朝向获取某个东西,在主体身上,被用来尽可能维持我所谓的「体内平衡」。 This does not simply mean the crossing of a certain threshold of excitement, but also a distribution of ways. Freud even uses metaphors that assign a diameter to these ways, which permit the maintenance, the ever equal dispersal, of a certain investment. 这不仅意味着某些興奋门槛的跨越,而且是一种途径的分布。弗洛伊德甚至使用各种比喻,给这些途径画出一条直径。这些比喻容许维持某些的投注,永远的相等的扩散。 Somewhere Freud says quite categorically that it is the pressure of what, in sexuality, has to be repressed in order to maintain the pleasure principle—namely, the libido—that has made possible the progress of the mental apparatus itself, as such and, for example, the establishment in the mental apparatus of that possibility of investment that we call Aufmerksamkeit, the possibility of attention. The determination of the functioning of the Real-Ich, which both satisfies the pleasure principle and, at the same time, is invested without defence by the upsurge of sexuality—this is what is responsible for its structure. 弗洛伊德在某个地方相当明白地说:在性方面,为了维持快乐原则,所必需被压抑的东西,换句话说,力比多,曾经让精神的工具本体自身的进展成为可能。譬如,我们所谓专注的可能的投注的可能性,这个精神工具的建立。这个真实自我的功用的决心,既满足快乐原则,同时,又毫无防卫地被性的泉涌投注—这就是它的结构会形成这样的原因。 At this level, we are not even forced to take into account any subjectification of the subject. The subject is an apparatus. 在这个层次,我们甚至被迫考虑到主体的任何主体化。这个主体是工具。 This apparatus is something lacunary, and it is in the lacuna that the subject establishes the function of a certain object, qua lost object. It is the status of the objet a in so far as it is present in the drive. 这个工具是某件缺口的东西。就在这个缺口,主体建立某种客体的功用,作为失落的客体。它出现在驱力里,作为小客体的地位。 In the phantasy, the subject is frequently unperceived, but he is always there, whether in the dream or in any of the more or less developed forms of day-dreaming. The subject situates himself as determined by the phantasy. 在幻见里,主体时常没有被感觉到,但是他总是在那里,无论在梦里,或在任何白日梦成形的形态里。主体定位他自己,作为由幻见决定。 The phantasy is the support of desire; it is not the object that is the support of desire. The subject sustains himself as desiring in relation to an ever more complex ensemble. This is apparent enough in the form of the scenario it assumes, in which the subject, more or less recognizable, is somewhere, split, divided, generally double, in his relation to the object, which usually does not show its true face either. 幻见是欲望的支持。欲望的支持并不是这个客体。主体支持自己,作为更复杂的聚合的关系的欲望。以它所扮演的剧本的形式,在足够算是工具了。在这个剧本里,主体模糊不清地在某个地方分裂,分离,变成双重,对应于它跟这个客体的关系。这个客体通常也不知道它的真正的脸孔。 Next time, I shall come back to what I have called the structure of perversion. Strictly speaking, it is an inverted effect of the phantasy. It is the subject who determines himself as object, in his encounter with the division of subjectivity. 下一次,我将回头谈我所谓的倒错的结构。严格来说,这是幻见到颠倒的影响。主体决定他自己,作为客体,在他跟主体性的区隔的遭遇。 I will show you—I must stop here today because of the time, I am very sorry to say—that the subject assuming this role of the object is precisely what sustains the reality of the situation of what is called the sado-masochistic drive, and which is only a single point, in the masochistic situation itself. It is in so far as the subject makes himself the object of another will that the sado-masochistic drive not only closes up, but constitutes itself. 我将跟你们显示---今天因为时间关系,我必须停在这里。我很抱歉地说---扮演这个客体角色的主体,维持所谓的虐待及受虐待驱力的情况的现实界。在受虐狂的情境里,这仅是一个单一点。当主体让他自己成为另外一个意志的客体,虐待狂及受虐狂不仅封闭,而且形成它自己。 It is only in a second stage, as Freud shows us in this text, that the sadistic desire is possible in relation to a phantasy. The sadistic desire exists in a crowd of configurations, and also in the neuroses, but it is not yet sadism in the strict sense. 只有在第二个阶段,如弗洛伊德在这个文本里跟我们显示,虐待狂的欲望跟幻见的关系,才有可能。虐待狂的欲望存在于一群的聚合里,而且也在神经症里,但是严格来说,这还不算是虐待狂。 I will ask you to look at my article Kant avec Sade, where you will see that the sadist himself occupies the place of the object, but without knowing it, to the benefit of another, for whose jouissance he exercises his action as sadistic pervert. 我将会要求你们观看我的文章「康德对萨德」。你们将会看出,虐待狂患者本人佔据这个客体的位置,但是自己并不知道。结果对于另外一个主体有利益,因为他运用他的行动,作为虐待狂的倒错者,就是为了这个主体的欢爽。 You see, then, several possibilities here for the funnction of the objet a, which is never found in the position of being the aim of desire. It is either pre-subjective, or the foundation of an identification of the subject, or the foundation of an identification disavowed by the subject. In this sense, sadism is merely the disavowal of masochism. This formula will make it possible to illuminate many things concerning the true nature of sadism. 在此,你们因此看出好几个可能性,作为这个小客体的功用。这个小客体永远无法在成为欲望的目标的这个位置被找到。它要就是处于前主体性,要不然就是作为主体的认同的基础,要不然就是不被主体承认的认同的基础。以这个意义来说,虐待狂仅仅是受虐狂的不被承认。这个公式让我们可能启明许多事情,关于虐待狂的特性。 But the object of desire, in the usual sense, is either a phantasy that is in reality the support of desire, or a lure. On this subject of the lure, which poses at the same time all the previous questions that you put forward just now concerning the relation of the subject to the real, the analysis that Freud gives of love enables us to make some progress. 但是欲望的客体,就通常意义来说,要就是在现实界支持欲望的幻见,要不就是一个陷阱。对于这个陷阱的这个主体,它同时提出所有你们刚才提出的先前的问题,关于主体与实在界的关系。弗洛伊德给予爱的这个分析,使我们能够获得一些进展。 The need Freud feels to refer to the relation of the Ich to the real in order to introduce the dialectic of love—whereas, strictly speaking, the neutral real is the desexualized real—is not introduced at the level of the drive. It is there that is to be found what, for us, will prove most valuable concerning how we should conceive of the function of love—namely, its fundamentally narcissistic structure. 弗洛伊德感觉有这个需要提到这个「我」跟实在界的关系,为了介绍爱的辩证法---另一方面,严格来说,中立的实在界是除掉性化的实在界---它并没有在驱力的层次被介绍。就在那里,我们能够找到最有价值的东西,关于我们应该如何构想爱的功用---换句话说,爱具有它基本上的自恋的结构。 There can be absolutely no doubt that there is a real. That the subject has a constructive relation with this real only within the narrow confines of the pleasure principle, of the pleasure principle unforced by the drive, this is—as we shall see next time—the point of emergence of the love object. The whole question is to discover how this love object may come to fulfill a role analogous with the object of desire—upon what equivocations does the possibility for the love object of becoming an object of desire rest? 有一个实在界,这是绝对无可置疑的。只有在快乐原则的这个狭窄的范围里,主体跟这个实在界,有一个建设性的关系。快乐原则由这个驱力自然形成—我们下一次将会看出—这就是爱的客体的出现点。整个的问题是要发现,这个爱的客体如何可能扮演一个类似欲望的客体的角色---爱的客体成为欲望的客体的可能性,要依靠怎样的暧昧? Have I thrown some light on your question? 我已经让你的问题获得明白回答不? J.-A. MILLER: Some light and some shadow. 米勒: 某些明白,某些模糊。 13 May 1964 雄伯译 32hsiung@pchome.com.tw http://springhero.wordpress.com

  • 潭寒

    潭寒 (解放自己,不是放纵自己) 2011-12-16 02:05:35

    驱力的翻转机制才会产生主体么?还是主体的产生离不开驱力的反转机制?所以这也可以解释何以人以社会的形式出现,没有人与人之间的关系,可能根本就没有人这种高级动物的产生。“这个它者的真实界,在最后,会以怎样的翻转,使原有的真实的自我,享有更丰富充实的生命光辉。 ” 实在界的无意识与大他者之间是什么关系呢?我理解的大他者就是神诶。 雄伯伯,我其实很想说太佩服你了,但是我的签名又是“不为无知而羞愧”,我觉得我需要忏悔,我还做不到不羞愧。 若要不羞愧,经历的是怎样的翻转呢?

  • springhero

    springhero 大他者 楼主 2011-12-16 06:40:17

    雄伯说: 恭喜你开始跟拉康谈人与人之间的关系了!我猜测拉康的回答很可能是这样:何谓是人?你潭寒是人吗?潭寒仅是一个文字的符号吧了,人人都可使用,未必就是你。那么拥有人的身体的小客体object a就是你吗?还是身体身上拥有言说的实在界的无意识大他者the Other?另外还有一个名词,叫小他者the other。就是符号界被人误为是实在界的大他者,但实际上是小客体。不知你理解的神,是实在界的大他者?符号界的小他者 (当你崇拜、信仰、爱慕、或跟他移情的时刻)?然后醒来之后,发现他跟你一样,不过是个小客体?你在那个神,大他者或小他者眼里,你是怎样的一个人,自以为自己是主体的潭寒,在大他者的眼里还是主体吗?还是客体?如果根据你自已文字描述过的情景来判断,充当客体的机率比较高,你的主体是永远消失不见?还是经过这一番翻转醒悟,你的无头的主体的轮廓,才开始渐渐浮现? 至于不羞愧要怎么地翻转?首先要问的是,羞愧shame有什么不好?假如自己错误、迷失、荒唐,甚至背德的事情做太多,还不懂羞愧,那叫哀莫大于心死。有羞愧的感觉,表示主体意识开始浮现,良心或自尊心开始觉醒。至于要如何翻转到不羞愧,那就要问你如何去面对你自己实在界的无意识大他者?那时候的潭寒主体,跟以前的潭寒的客体(或无头的主体),会有什么不同吗?

  • springhero

    springhero 大他者 楼主 2011-12-16 08:10:21

    潭寒的「若要不羞愧,经历的是怎样的翻转呢?」这让我回想到一部澳洲的影片,片名就是「羞愧」Shame. 内容描述一位理性主义自许的大学教授,被学校解聘,因为有女学生控诉他性侵害。他在调查庭上却坦荡荡地答辩:他跟女学生的性爱关系,是属于私人情感领域。他并没有因为私人情感,而给予女学生学科及格的分数。也就是他是公私分明,而无愧于职守及良心。 被解聘后,他前往拜访在偏远地区开辟农场的女儿。他发现女儿的农场虽然潜力无穷,但是饱受当地土著的侵扰。女儿为求生存,只有委身于附近一位已有家室子女的土著族长,以求保护。教授拜访女儿时,自己也亲身经历被骚扰攻击,几乎遭遇生命危险。才逐渐明白,从小独立自主,自尊心强悍的女儿,为何在这种情况下委屈求全?形势比人强也。 这时他才醒悟到,自己在大学里自以为理性主义的公私分明,其实盗用公权力的形势而获取私人情感(其实就是性爱)的利益。他终于自尊心开始觉醒地感到羞愧,回去跟受害者跪地道歉。

  • 潭寒

    潭寒 (解放自己,不是放纵自己) 2011-12-16 14:38:45

    骄傲是一种偏斜,羞愧也是一种偏斜,若对小客体产生羞愧之心,便容易失去中正的判断。上一刻做了偏斜之事,醒悟的这一刻若继续羞愧,便是一偏再偏,一错再错。我以为回归中正便是。 我第一次失恋的经历就像劳儿之劫,拥有他就像拥有了天堂,失去他便觉得世界崩塌。这是一阵披着疾病外衣的狂风,是生命的疯狂,这来自实在界无意识的狂风,把继承自家族、社会文明的符号界、想象界的迷雾扫虐一空,那种来自“我”的痛苦而长久的呐喊,是主体的苏醒,就像婴儿的啼哭。 我的意识从此服从的依据,便不再是社会可见的法则,而是直接来自于我心的法则,就像康德所说“头上星光灿烂,道德律在我心中”。心中有王,意识只是调配身体的将领。我的情感经历,也是如此,我对人的情感真实确凿,便去实现这欢爽。有妇之夫我爱,便靠近他,却仍然劝引他回归家庭的幸福;迷恋我之人,我陪伴,并不扭头而去不管不问;天真之人,我以天真之情回报,并以天真的脆弱呈现给他。我交往的从来不是“物”,而是人,也许是无头主体,但都是有希望之人。

  • springhero

    springhero 大他者 楼主 2011-12-16 17:51:22

    雄伯说: 你提到玛格丽特、杜拉斯Margarate Duras的「劳儿之劫」The Ravishing of Lol,V,Stein,拉康也曾给予精神分析过。不过,我网络搜寻到的这段评述,我觉得还蛮贴切: 那么劳儿背后的人是谁?     “她是一个疯子。”⑥     在心理诊所里看见的一个美丽、迷茫、远离人群,一个人呆坐在一边的女人。毫无疑问,杜拉斯被这个看上去端庄娴静的女人吸引。她和她讲话,轻轻地,慢慢地听她讲述她的经历。她的言语也许支离破碎,但却使杜拉斯陷在其中。她甚至带这个女人回家来让自己更加贴近她。安静时,她看上去普普通通,和一般人没有区别。但是杜拉斯却知道她想要欢娱的疯狂的欲望,焦灼而痛苦,强烈情绪的波动的一面。     她的生活与现在远离。或在事情发生之前,或在它的后面。‘“这当然是一种精神方面的疾病。”但她真的是活在这个世界之外。’⑦在这一点上,劳儿和这个女人一样。杜拉斯借用了这一点,构造她的劳儿。     玛格利特和这个女人聊了两天,然后他们不再联系。这个女人给玛格利特一个劳儿的感觉,玛格利特把这个感觉丰满起来。加入许许多多感情、心理上的微妙变化。其中不乏玛格利特自己的。玛格利特潜藏在文中,她牺牲自己去感受。酒精,她用酒精刺激自己。试图在清醒的边缘找到能够描述这种感觉的词语。不清不醒,她要的就是这种感觉。然而,她最终还是通过劳儿来表示自己对某个词汇的缺失的绝望。“她在寻找唯一一个词上面临的困难似乎是无法逾越的”。生活在“因为缺少一个词而无以言状的唯一的大悲大喜”之中。她继续寻找这个词,她相信这个词可能存在:“这会是一个缺词,一个空词,在这个词中间掘了一个窟窿,在这个窟窿中所有其他的词会被埋葬。也许不会说出它来,但却可以使它充满声响。这个巨大的无边无际的空锣也许可以留住那些要离开的词,使它们相信不可能的事情,把所有其他的不是它的词震聋,一次性的为它们、将来和此时命名。     “可是无名的痛苦又怎样可以言说呢?”⑧语言和言语,languag and speech。语言中没有玛格利特需要的言语。     焦灼、撩心、无法抑制的急促呼吸,却正是这种感觉从心里翻出来,让人体会劳儿心里的缺失、残破、欲望。亦或是三者混合在一起的味道。     要从感觉上乃至行动上的共鸣来理解,呼吸急促,心跳加快,不知所措。     劳儿曾经有过一段平静的日子。她用劳动压迫自己。麻痹。不停,不得停,为了不想。她家一丝不苟的陈设,花园,孩子给了她逃避的场所。让自己与自己有一段距离,在回到沙塔拉,在家里没有保姆,在看见那对热吻的情侣或者那个男人的眼神之前,她让自己生活在自我旁边。顺从、温柔、准时有秩序,但是平淡、沉静有如睡美人一般死寂。那是仅有幻想的情感低潮。     然而写下并倾力去感受接近这种绝望的杜拉斯不能躲避。明明心疼的要命,却要忍痛把这样的痛苦表达出来。用从黑夜里感受到的孤独和不能抑制的激动混合出惊人的火花。心血的结晶。     好的作家往往用血写作。他们太敏感,太骄傲,太孤独,但正是这种与众不同造就了玛格利特的精确的笔触。     我想起一句话。     “像是创造之主,滞留在自己的手稿里面,后面高悬其上或紧贴其面,无形精致,位于存在之外的修剪着指甲。”⑨

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